Improving the cost-effectiveness of artificial visual baits for controlling the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes
CITATION: Lindh, J. M., et al. 2009. Improving the cost-effectiveness of artificial visual baits for controlling the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3(7): 1-7, doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000474.
The original publication is available at http://journals.plos.org/plosntds
Tsetse flies, which transmit sleeping sickness to humans and nagana to cattle, are commonly controlled by stationary artificial baits consisting of traps or insecticide-treated screens known as targets. In Kenya the use of electrocuting sampling devices showed that the numbers of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Newstead) visiting a biconical trap were nearly double those visiting a black target of 100 cm6100 cm. However, only 40% of the males and 21% of the females entered the trap, whereas 71% and 34%, respectively, alighted on the target. The greater number visiting the trap appeared to be due to its being largely blue, rather than being three-dimensional or raised above the ground. Through a series of variations of target design we show that a blue-and-black panel of cloth (0.06 m2) flanked by a panel (0.06 m2) of fine black netting, placed at ground level, would be about ten times more cost-effective than traps or large targets in control campaigns. This finding has important implications for controlling all subspecies of G. fuscipes, which are currently responsible for more than 90% of sleeping sickness cases.