Simulation of tribological interactions in bonded particle-solid contacts

Van Wyk, Geritza (2012-12)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study, tool forces from rock cutting tests were numerically simulated through a discrete element method (DEM) in association with PFC3D™. Tribological interactions such as contact, shearing, fracturing, friction and wear were presented during these cutting simulations. Particle assemblies, representing Paarl granite and Sandstone-2, were created in PFC3D™ through a material-genesis procedure. The macro-properties of these particle assemblies, namely Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength and Brazilian tensile strength, were calibrated by modelling the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength test and the Brazilian tensile strength test. The calibration was done through adjustment of the micro-properties of the assembly, namely the stiffness and strength parameters of the particles and bonds. The influence of particle size on the calibration was also investigated. These assemblies were used in the rock cutting tests. Results suggested that DEM can reproduce the damage formation during calibration tests successfully. From the results obtained from the calibration tests, it was also concluded that particle size is not a free parameter but influences the macro-properties greatly. Different rock cutting tools were simulated, namely point-attack (conical) picks, chisel-shaped tools and button-shaped tools. The numerical cutting tools were treated as rigid walls to simplify the simulation and the tool forces were not influenced by wear. In each simulation the cutting tools advanced at a constant velocity. The tool forces acting on the cutting tool, in three orthogonal directions, were recorded during the numerical simulations and the peak cutting forces were predicted by theoretical equations. The damage to the Paarl granite and Sandstone-2 assemblies was revealed as broken bonds, which merge into microscopic fractures. The mean peak cutting forces of sharp cutting tools obtained from numerical, theoretical and experimental models (from the literature) were compared. Finally the influence of factors, including wear on the tool and depth of cut, on the value of tool forces was also investigated. The results from the rock cutting tests revealed that the correlation between the numerical and the experimental models as well as the theoretical and experimental models was not strong when using sharp point-attack and chisel-shaped picks. It was concluded that the influence of wear plays a substantial part in the cutting process and it has to be included during the numerical simulation for the results to be accurate and verifiable. This study also found that there is a non-linear increase in tool forces with an increase in depth of cut, since the contact area increases. At larger cutting depths, chip formation also generally increased and therefore damage to the sample as well as wear on the cutting tool will be minimized at shallow cutting depths. Overall this study concludes that DEM are capable of simulating calibration methods and rock cutting processes with different cutting tools and producing results which are verifiable with experimental data. Therefore numerical prediction of tool forces will allow the design of efficient cutting systems and the operational parameters as well as the performance prediction of excavation machines.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie is die kragte wat tydens rotssny-toetse op die sny gereedskap inwerk, numeries gesimuleer met behulp van ‘n diskrete element metode (DEM) in samewerking met PFC3D™. Tribologiese interaksies soos kontak, skeer, breking, wrywing en slytasie is gedurende hiersie snytoetse voorgestel. Partikel versamelings, wat Paarl graniet en Sandsteen-2 verteenwoordig, is in PFC3D™ geskep deur middel van ‘n materiaal-skeppings prosedure. Die makro-eienskappe van die partikel versamelings, naamlik Young se modulus, Poisson se verhouding, eenassige en drie-assige druksterkte en Brasiliaanse treksterkte, is gekalibreer deur modellering van die eenassige en drie-assige druksterkte toets en die Brasiliaanse treksterkte toets. Die kalibrasie is gedoen deur aanpassing van die mikro-eienskappe, naamlik die styfheid en die sterkte parameters van die partikels en bindings. Die invloed van partikelgrootte is ook ondersoek. Daarna is hierdie versamelings in die rotssny-toetse gebruik. Resultate het daarop gedui dat DEM die kraakvorming gedurende kalibrasie toetse suksesvol kan reproduseer. Vanuit die kalibrasie is ook gevind dat die partikelgrootte nie ‘n vrye parameter is nie, maar die makro-eienskappe grotendeels beïnvloed. Verskillende rotssny gereedskap is gesimuleer, naamlik koniese, beitel-vormige en knopie-vormige instrumente. Die numeriese sny gereedskap is gesimuleer as rigiede mure om simulasies te vereenvoudig en die gereedskap-kragte is dus nie deur slytasie beïnvloed nie. Tydens elke simulasie is die sny gereedskap vorentoe beweeg teen ‘n konstante snelheid. Die gereedskap-kragte, in drie ortogonale rigtings, is aangeteken gedurende die numeriese simulasies en die piek snykragte is ook voorspel deur teoretiese vergelykings. Die skade aan die Paarl graniet en Sandsteen-2 versamelings, is voorgestel as gebreekte bindings, wat saamsmelt tot mikroskopiese frakture. Die gemiddelde piek snykragte van skerp sny gereedskap van numeriese, teoretiese en eksperimentele modelle (uit die literatuur) is vergelyk. Ten slotte is die invloed wat faktore, onder andere die slytasie van gereedskap en die snydiepte, op die grootte van die kragte het ondersoek. Die resultate van die rotssny-toetse het aan die lig gebring dat die korrelasie tussen die numeriese en eksperimentale modelle sowel as die teoretiese en eksperimentele modelle nie sterk is tydens die gebruik van skerp koniese en beitel-vormige instrumente nie. Die gevolgtrekking is gemaak dat die invloed van slytasie van sny gereedskap ‘n wesenlike rol speel in die snyproses en dat dit in die numeriese simulasie ingesluit moet word sodat die resultate akkuraat en virifieerbaar is. Hierdie studie het ook gevind dat daar ‘n nie-lineêre toename in die gereedskap-kragte is met ‘n toename in snydiepte aangesien die kontak-area toeneem met ‘n toename in die snydiepte. By groter snydieptes, het die formasie van afsplinterings verhoog en dus sal skade aan die partikel versamelings en die slytasie van die gereedskap geminimeer word by vlakker snydieptes. Algeheel het die studie tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat DEM in staat is om kalibrasie metodes en rotssny-toetse met verskillende sny gereedskap te simuleer asook om resultate te produseer wat verifieerbaar is met eksperimentele data. Numeriese voorspellings van die gereedskap-kragte sal dus toelaat om doeltreffende sny prosesse en operasionele parameters te ontwerp sowel as om die werkverrigting van uitgrawings masjiene te voorspel.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71941
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