Mannoprotein production and wine haze reduction by wine yeast strains

Ndlovu, Thulile (2012-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Wine protein haze formation is a major challenge for wine makers, and several wine clarifying agents such as bentonite are used in the industry to protect wine from this occurrence. However, clarifying agents may have an undesirable impact on wine quality. Yeast mannoproteins have been shown to possess haze-protective properties, while also positively impacting on the sensorial properties of the product. However, while such mannoproteins are released into the wine during the wine making process, the amounts are low and therefore of limited oenological significance. However, and although commercial wine yeast strains display significant genotypic and phenotypic diversity, no broader assessment of haze protective activity and of mannoproteins release by different wine yeast strains has been undertaken. In this study, several yeast strains were screened for their impact on wine haze formation in Chardonnay must and in a grape juice model system. The data show that strains of the species Saccharomyces paradoxus possess better haze protective properties than the common Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains. Differences in the nature of the proteins released by these two species were investigated, and indicated that several mannoproteins were released at significantly higher levels by S. paradoxus, and that some of these proteins might indeed contribute to the haze-protective activity. A further exploration of yeast cell wall properties indicated that the cell walls of haze-protective S. paradoxus strains contained higher levels of chitin than non-haze protective strains. Grape chitinases are likely to be primarily responsible for wine haze formation, and the data clearly demonstrate that these enzymes are able to bind to the yeast cell walls, and that strains with higher amounts of chitin in the cell wall will bind more chitinases. This finding suggests that the haze-protective nature of the strains is at least in part linked to the chitin levels of the strains. Furthermore, the impact of some genetic modifications in two wine strains (namely S. cerevisiae VIN13 and S. paradoxus RO88) suggests that several proteins contribute to wine haze protection. However, none of the mannoprotein-encoding flocculation genes, FLO1, FLO5, and FLO11 showed any impact on this property. Further studies are required to assess the full impact of the S. paradoxus strains on haze protection. In particular, the possible use of such strains as starter cultures or the use of S. paradoxus yeast hulls as clarifying agent needs to be further explored.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wyn proteïen-waas vorming is 'n groot uitdaging vir wynmakers en verskeie wyn verhelderings agente soos bentoniet word in die wynbedryf gebruik om wyn te beskerm teen die vorming van waas. Hierdie verheldering agente het egter 'n ongewenste impak op wynkwaliteit. Gis mannoproteïene is uitgewys as proteïene met moontlike waas-beskermende eienskappe wat ook 'n positiewe uitwerking op die sensoriese eienskappe van die produk het. Al word hierdie mannoproteïene egter vrygestel in die wyn tydens die wynmaak proses, is die hoeveelhede oor die algemeen te laag om van wynkundige belang te wees. Verder, ten spyte van die beduidende genotipiese en fenotipiese diversiteit van kommersiële wyngisrasse is daar nog geen breër assessering van die waas beskermende aktiwiteit van mannoproteïene, vrygestel deur verskillende rasse, tot dusver onderneem nie. In hierdie studie is verskeie gisrasse gekeur vir hul impak op wyn waas-vorming in Chardonnay mos en ook in 'n model druiwesap. Die data wys dat rasse van die spesie Saccharomyces paradoxus besit beter waas beskermende eienskappe as die algemene Saccharomyces cerevisiae wyngisrasse. Verskille in die aard van die proteïene wat vrygestel is deur hierdie twee spesies is ondersoek, en dit is aangedui aangedui dat verskeie mannoproteins vrygestel aan aansienlik hoër vlakke deur S. Paradoxus. Dit is ook aangedui dat sommige van hierdie proteïene wel bydra tot die waas-beskermende aktiwiteit. 'n Verdere verkenning van gis selwand eienskappe het aangedui dat die selwande van waas-beskermende rasse van S. paradoxus hoër vlakke chitien as nie-waas beskermende stamme bevat. Druiwe chitinases is waarskynlik hoofsaaklik verantwoordelik vir wyn waas vorming, en die data toon duidelik dat hierdie ensieme in staat is om te bind aan die gis selwande, en dat die stamme met hoër vlakke chitien in die selwand meer chitinases sal bind. Hierdie bevinding dui daarop dat die waas-beskermende aard van die stamme ten minste gedeeltelik gekoppel is aan die chitien vlakke van die stamme. Die impak van sekere genetiese modifikasies in twee verskillende gisrasse, naamlik die S. cerevisiae ras VIN13 en die S. paradoxus ras RO88, dui verder daarop dat verskeie proteïene dra by tot die beskerming teen wyn waas. Geeneen van die mannoprotein-koderende flokkulasie gene, FLO1, FLO5 en FLO11 het egter 'n impak op hierdie eienskap nie. Verdere studies is nodig om die volle impak van die S. paradoxus rasse op waas beskerming te assesseer. In die besonder, die moontlike gebruik van sulke rasse as 'n inkolasie kultuur of die gebruik van S. paradoxus gis doppe as verheldering agent moet verder ondersoek word.

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