Die bevordering van vroegtydige geletterdheid deur middel van multimedia as voorbereiding vir aanvangslees om leesvermoe, -begrip en -vlotheid te verseker

Marais, Susanna Gertruida Elizabeth (2012-12)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: According to the results of the Annual National Assessment, ANA, the reading skills (reading ability, reading comprehension and fluency in reading) of children in South African schools are not up to standard (Department of Basic Education, 2011:20). Only 28% of Grade 6 learners and 35% of Grade 3 learners achieved the standardized levels for literacy and language in their respective grades. Further research (De Witt, 2009:619) also proved that only 35% of Grade R learners reached the minimum requirements for the development of literacy according to their age (5-6 years). The focus of this research is the advancement of Emergent Literacy through multimedia as preparation for elementary reading to ensure reading ability, comprehension and fluency. To promote Emergent Literacy the researcher should: - determine through research at what stage the natural developmental pattern of the learn to read process starts with toddlers - determine the process to follow for the development of literacy - determine the necessary skills required for reading fluently and with comprehension up to an age related standard - develop a multimedia program based on and guided by the process of literacy development - observe, record and analyze the effect of such a multimedia program for toddlers/learners. The research approach adopted in this thesis includes a case study with pre-school children between the ages of 2 and 5 years old. A learner aged 13, who had not yet achieved the required literacy levels for her age, was also included in the study. Data collection was done through interviews with and observations of toddlers/learners using a multimedia program that consisted of Foundation Skills for Emergent Literacy and General Reading Standards for Early Literacy. The multimedia program was designed based on an in-depth literature review of existing research. This research was focused on determining at which stage natural literacy development begins and what process should be followed to facilitate such development. The multimedia program covers the aspects of Phonological Processing, Print Awareness, Oral Language Skills, Emergent Reading, Print Knowledge and Early Word Recognition, Language Development and Listening and Reading Comprehension. The findings from this research provide evidence that highlights the value of reading, singing and repeating rhymes, songs and stories to children. The different methods of reading to children, the print–reference style to teach letters and sounds as well as inferencing that leads to comprehension, are proven by this research to be very important.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die standaard van leesvaardigheid (leesvermoë, -begrip en –vlotheid) in Suid-Afrikaanse skole is ondergemiddeld volgens die uitslag van die verslag oor die Jaarlikse Nasionale Assessering (in Engels: Annual National Assessment of afgekort ANA), wat aandui dat net 28% van alle Gr. 6-leerders en net 35% van alle Gr. 3-leerders die standaardvlakke vir geletterdheid en taal vir die betrokke grade behaal het (Departement van Basiese Onderwys, 2011:20). Verdere navorsing het egter ook bewys dat slegs 35% van Gr. R-leerders die minimum vereistes van geletterdheidsontwikkeling vir hulle ouderdom (5-6 jaar) bereik. Dit impliseer dat die meerderheid leerders Gr. 1 begin sonder die nodige vooraf vaardighede om te kan leer lees (De Witt, 2009:619). Die fokus van hierdie studie is om Vroegtydige Geletterdheid te bevorder deur middel van multimedia as voorbereiding vir aanvangslees om leesvermoë, -begrip en -vlotheid te verseker. Om Vroegtydige Geletterdheid te kan bevorder, moet vasgestel word volgens navorsing: - op watter stadium die natuurlike ontwikkelingspatroon van leer-lees by die kleuter begin - die proses om te volg vir geletterdheidsontwikkeling - watter vaardighede aangeleer behoort te word om op standaard, vlot en met begrip te kan lees volgens ouderdom - om ‘n multimediaprogram volgens die geletterdheidsontwikkelingsproses op te stel - wat die uitwerking van ’n multimediaprogram op kleuters/leerders is. In hierdie navorsing word ‘n gevallestudie as die navorsingsstrategie gebruik met kleuters/leerders vanaf 2 jaar tot 5 jaar oud en een 13-jarige leerder wat ingesluit word omdat sy nog nie die ontwikkelingsvlak vir lees volgens haar ouderdom bereik het nie. Die data vir die Grondslagvaardighede vir Vroegtydige Geletterdheid en Algemene Leesstandaarde vir Geletterdheid word ingesamel deur onderhoudvoering en waarneming. ‘n Multimediaprogram is saamgestel na aanleiding van 'n in-diepte literatuuroorsig van bestaande navorsing spesifiek gerig op watter stadium geletterdheidsontwikkeling begin en die bepaling van die proses om te volg vir geletterdheidsontwikkeling. Deur hierdie multimediaprogram word Fonologiese Prosessering, Skrifbewustheid, Mondelinge Taalvaardighede, Vroegtydige Leesgedrag, Letterkennis en Vroeë Woordherkenning, Taalontwikkeling, Luister- en Leesbegrip bevorder. Die gevolgtrekking van die navorsing dui daarop dat daar baie waarde opgesluit is in die voorlees en herhaling van rympies, liedjies en stories. Die voorleesmetode van stories deur middel van die skrifverwysingsstyl-leesmetode wat verwys na die uitwysing van letters tydens die voorlees van ‘n storie, bevorder die aanleer van letters en klanke. Deur die kleuter of leerder te lei om afleidings te maak, word begrip gevorm.

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