The effects of different selenium sources on the meat quality and bioavailability of selenium in lamb
Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In many parts of the world, soil is depleted of selenium (Se), leading to selenium-poor plants, animals and, therefore, humans. It was recognised that a study to examine the functionality of new products on the market to address this problem was required. The purpose of this research were threefold: to compare the effects of sodium selenite (NaSe) and organically bound selenium sources on small ruminant performance, to investigate the bioavailability of these Se sources, and analyse their influence on carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant capabilities. Fourty growing Döhne Merino wethers from the Southern Cape region, a selenium-deficient area, were used for the study. The animals were all fed the same basal diet in the adaptation period and were then allocated to one of four treatment groups: Control (CT), inorganic selenium (IS), organically bound Se A (OSA) or B: (OSB). The period of supplementation was 90 days. This first study assessed the effect of the different Se sources on growth and Se bioavailability in the wethers. The wethers and the feed they consumed were regularly weighed to determine their growth and feed conversion rate (FCR) in the trial period. To gauge their Se level, blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture at monthly intervals. The wool around the jugular was shorn and samples were collected on day 0 and day 90 for comparative Se level analysis. Liver, skeletal muscle and kidney samples were collected at day 90, directly after slaughter, to determine the Se level in these tissues. No effect could be reported in the growth and FCR of the wethers between the supplementation groups. For whole blood Se levels there was an effect in the early part of the study, with a greater increase in Se levels for the organically bound Se groups, but in the end no effect on whole blood levels could be seen between the different Se treatments. Neither could any difference between the inorganic Se and organic bound Se treatments be found in the liver – however, the total Se concentration of the wool, kidney and meat samples was greater in those animals offered organically bound Se when compared with those receiving a comparable dose of inorganic Se. The second study evaluated the antioxidant capabilities of the different Se supplements in the wethers. Blood samples were taken monthly for plasma collection to test for Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Liver, skeletal muscle and kidney samples were collected at day 90, immediately after slaughter and measured for GSH-Px activity. With TAC, there was a significant effect for the treatment period between day 0 and day 90, however the treatments did not show any significant difference. No significant differences could be established between the different Se treatments for the GSH-Px analysis in any of the tissues. For the mean plasma values of the treatments no significant differences can be reported, but a significant difference was observed at day 30 in the contrast between the organically bound Se and the other treatment groups. The third study was to evaluate the quality and lipid oxidation of muscle from those wethers supplemented with different Se sources. Skeletal muscle samples were collected at day 90, directly after slaughter to determine this. No differences in the meat quality of the wethers could be detected between Se sources after the 90-day supplementation period. Lipid oxidation was measured by determining TBA reactive substances (TBARS) and once again no differences could be detected. Based on the results found in this investigation, it may be inferred that organically bound Se (OSA & OSB) supplementation will hold a number of advantages for small ruminants over inorganic Se supplementation. Animals fed the organically bound Se had reached adequate Se levels sooner on the organically bounded treatments than the inorganically bounded treated animals. The greater bioavailability of organically bounded Se over inorganic Se was proven by the increased Se levels in certain tissues and organs. Additionally, only the organically bounded Se could find a pathway to the wool, confirming that it was carried in an organic form (probably selenomethionine) in the body. Organically bound Se will therefore have a positive impact on small ruminant health and production, which will result in an indirect advantage for consumer health.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die grond in groot dele van die wêreld word selenium-arm en dit lei na selenium-arm plante, diere en mense. Dit is waargeneem dat ‘n studie wat kyk na die funksionaliteit van nuwe produkte op die mark om die probleem aan te spreek nodig is. Die doelwit van die studie was om verskillende selenium (Se) bronne te vergelyk en die uitwerking daarvan op klein herkouer prestasie te evalueer. Daar is gekyk na die biobeskikbaarheid, invloed daarvan op die karkas eienskappe en antioksidant vermoëns van die verskillende Se bronne. Veertig groeiende Dohne Merino-hamels van die Suid-Kaap-streek, 'n Se arm gebied is gebruik vir die studie. Die diere is almal dieselfde basale dieet gevoer in die aanpassing periode en dan toegeken aan een van vier behandelings: kontrole (CT), anorganiese Se (IS), organies gebinde Se A (OSA) of B: (OSB). Die tydperk van die aanvulling was 90 dae. In die eerste studie is gekyk na die effek van die verskillende bronne van Se op die groei en die biobeskikbaarheid daarvan aan die hamels. Die hamels en voer verbruik, is gereeld geweeg sodat hul groei en voer omset verhouding (VOV) in die proef tydperk te bepaal. Bloedmonsters is versamel deur middel van die jugulêre venipuncture vir die Se vlak bepaling daarvan. Lewer, skeletspier en nier monsters is versamel op dag 90, direk na die slagting vir die Se vlak bepaling. Die wol rondom die nekslagaar is geskeer en monsters is versamel op dag 0 en 90 vir Se vlak analise. Geen effek kan gerapporteer word vir die groei en VOV van die hamels tydens die aanvullings periode nie. Vir die bloed Se vlakke was daar 'n uitwerking in die vroeë deel van die studie, met 'n vinniger toename in Se vlakke vir die organies gebinde Se groepe, maar aan die einde kon geen effek gesien word tussen die verskillende Se behandelings nie. Geen verskil tussen die NaSe en organiese gebonde Se behandelings kon gevind word in die lewer nie. Die totale Se konsentrasie van die wol-, nier-en vleis