A creative tension between spirituality and physical needs : a theological Eccesiological evaluation of a food security programme for the council of churches in Zambia

Zulu, William (2012-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Agriculture is the main stay for Zambia‟s economic growth and for enhancing household food security. But small holder farmers living in rural areas of Zambia are not able to command food resources because of their low per capita productivity to grow and store food to provide for their families throughout the year. The two three months prior to harvest (January, February and March) are the period of sufficient national deprivation for many rural households in Zambia. This scenario has created a serious food insecurity problem among most households living in rural Zambia as they cannot afford descent meals a day. Maposa community is one of the communities that is food insecure due to a range of factors which include poor agriculture practice, lack of farm inputs and civic awareness on matters that affect their livelihood. The Reformed church in Zambia (RCZ) has been implementing a food security project in Maposa community on the Copperbelt of Zambia from 2007 to 2010 whose main objective of this project is to empower household farmers with agriculture skills so that they can be able to produce food on a more sustainable way to feed their families. This study therefore, offers an ecclesiological evaluation of the Maposa Food Security Project implemented. Ecclesiological evaluation in this case implies using the Biblical theological perspective to assess the tools RCZ used in this food security. In addition, it is important to note that Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) belongs to an ecumenical body called the Council of Churches in Zambia (CCZ). The Council of Churches in Zambia (CCZ) is an organ that unites all Christian Churches in Zambia and advocates on behalf of member churches all matters related to church registration and also provides guidelines to member churches how to implement community development programmes in line with the governments development plans on national building such as (5th National Development plan and vision 2030). Furthermore, Reformed church in Zambia (RCZ) and other CCZ member churches feed into the annual report of the Council of Churches in Zambia which meets once every year. Though this evaluation is focussed on the Maposa food security project implemented by Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ), the Council of Churches in Zambia cannot be isolated since it is the mother body of all Christian Churches in operating in Zambia. The results of this research will be shared with both Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) and the Council of Churches in Zambia (CCZ). The researcher believes that the outcome of this research will help in improving the performance of both the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) and the Council of Churches in Zambia (CCZ) as they participate in transformational development. This study therefore, investigated the following four areas of transformational development in the food security project: Participation: to assess whether the farmer beneficiaries in the project have been involved in the planning of the food security project, have identified their own priorities for the project or have used their own resources to exercise control over their own economic, social and cultural development. Capacity building: to assess how the food security project implemented by RCZ has strengthened the capacity of the local people. This includes the transfer of skills through training for purposes of equipping people to engage in their own development. Local resource mobilization: to assess the community‟s participation in the mobilization of their own resources in the project implementation. Sustainability: to assess the long term viability of this food security project beyond the support of the RCZ. This study is answering the research question, „How can the church and its context participate in a practical way in transforming communities where there is poverty and food deficit?‟ This research argues that if the church can effectively participate in transformational development through the promotion of sustainable agriculture and food production, the majority of the people living in the rural areas of Zambia can be economically empowered and become food secure all year round. Poverty in this rural area is as a result of inability of households to meet basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Landbou is die steunpilaar van Zambië se ekonomiese groei en die versterking van huishoudelike voedselsekerheid. Weens hul kleiner per kapita produktiwiteit is kleiner huur-boere in landelike gebiede egter nie in staat om voedselbronne in stand te hou nie, dit wil sê om genoeg kos vir ʼn jaar vir hul gesinne te produseer en stoor nie. Die twee of drie maande voor oestyd (Januarie, Februarie en Maart) is ʼn tydperk van tekort in baie landelike huishoudings in Zambië. Hierdie scenario het ʼn ernstige voeselsekerheidprobleem geskep vir die meeste gesinne in landelike Zambië, wat nie drie etes ʼn dag kan bekostig nie. Die Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) het daarom van 2007 tot 2010 ʼn voedselsekerheidprojek gevestig in Maposa-gemeenskap in die Koperbelt in Zambië met die doel om huishoudings met voedsekerheid te bemagtig deur die bevordering van goeie landbou-praktyke. Hierdie studie bied dus ʼn evaluering van Maposa Food Security Project wat deur die RCZ geïmplementeer is. Die RCZ is ʼn lid van die ekumeniese liggaam die Council of Churches in Zambia (CCZ). Die CCZ is ʼn liggaam wat alle Christelike kerk in Zambië verenig en namens kerklike lede kwessies oor kerk-registrasie verdedig en ook riglyne verskaf oor hoe kerklike lede gemeenskapsontwikkelingsprogramme moet implementeer wat belyn is met die regering se ontwikkelingsplanne vir nasionale bou (5th National Development Plan, Vision 2030). Die RCZ en ander CCZ lede het dus ook inspraak in die jaarverslag van die CCZ. Die doel van die studie is ʼn evaluering van die bydrae wat die RCZ gemaak het tot die aanspreek van die voedselsekerheidprobleem in landelike gemeenskappe as agent en katalisator van transformerende gemeenskapsontwikkeling. Die doel van die Maposa-projek is om huishoudelike voedselsekerheid te versterk by lede van die gemeenskap as ʼn maatreël tot ekonomiese bemagtiging. Die studie het die volgende areas van transformerende ontwikkeling in die voedselsekerheidprojek ondersoek. Deelname: om te assesseer of die boere-begunstigdes in die projek betrokke was by die beplanning van die voedselsekerheidprojek, hul eie prioriteite vir die projek geïdentifiseer het of hul eie bronne benut het om beheer uit te oefen oor hul eie ekonomiese, sosiale en kulturele ontwikkeling. Kapasiteitbou: om te assesseer hoe die voedselsekerheidprojek wat deur die RCZ geïmplementeer is, die kapasiteit van plaaslike mense versterk het. Dit sluit in die oordra van vaardighede deur opleiding met die doel om mense toe te rus om hulself te ontwikkel. Plaaslike bron-mobilisasie: om die gemeenskap se deelname in die mobilisasie van hul eie bronne in die projek se implementering te assesseer. Volhoubaarheid: om die langtermyn-volhoubaarheid van hierdie voedselsekerheid buiten die steun van die RCZ te assesseer. Die studie beantwoord die navorsingsvraag: „Hoe kan die kerk en die kerk se konteks prakties deelneem aan transformasie waar daar armoede en voedseltekort is?‟ Die navorsing betoog dat as die kerk effektief kan deelneem aan transformerende ontwikkeling deur die bevordering van volhoubare landbou en voedselproduksie, kan die meerderheid mense in die landelike gebiede in Zambië ekonomies bemagtig word en heeljaar voedselsekerheid geniet. Armoede in dié landelike gebied is die gevolg van ʼn onvermoë van huishoudings om te voorsien in basiese behoeftes soos kos, behuising en klerasie. Die navorsing-struktuur is: Hoofstuk 1 dien as ʼn inleiding tot die navorsingsproses. Dit bied ʼn padkaart waarvolgens die hele studie sistematies aangebied word. Dit is ʼn raamwerk vir transformerende gemeenskapsontwikkeling en noem maniere waarop teologie prakties aangewend kan word. Hoofstuk 2 gee ʼn oorsig van ʼn regverdige en volhoubare voedselsisteem. Daar word betoog dat, indien arm landelike gemeenskappe voedselsekerheid wil behaal, sal regerings en ander rolspelers betrokke moet raak by ontwikkelingsbeleide en programme om ʼn regverdige voedselstelsel te bevorder waar voedsel geredelik beskikbaar en vir almal toeganklik is. Verder word maniere bespreek om landbou te verbeter om voedselsekerheid te bereik in arm landelike gemeenskappe. ʼn Oorsig van die voedselsekerheidstelsel in Zambië word ook in dié hoofstuk gebied. Hoofstuk 3 bespreek landbou en voedselproduksie in Zambië. Die doel van die hoofstuk is om ʼn oorsig te gee van landbou in verhouding tot huishoudelike voedselsekerheid veral in die landelike gemeenskappe in Zambië, wat hoë vlakke van voedselonsekerheid ervaar. Hoofstuk 4 kyk na die Bybelse en teologiese perspektief van landbou en voedselproduksie. Dit bied ʼn oorsig van Bybelse lering oor landbou en voedselproduksie deur te kyk na landbou en voedselproduksie vanuit beide Ou Testamentiese en Nuwe Testamentiese perspektiewe. Die doel is om te ontdek hoe boerdery vanuit ʼn teologiese oogpunt op die huidige landboustelsel toegepas kan word om voedselproduksie te verhoog. Hoofstuk 5 bied ʼn teologiese ekklesiologiese raamwerk van voedselsekerheid soos gevind in Hoofstuk 4 om vir die RCZ en die CCZ riglyne te bied vir hul poging om betrokke te raak by transformerende gemeenskapsontwikkeling deur die voedselsekerheidprojek in Maposa-gemeenskap en elders. Hoofstuk 6 bied riglyne vir die bemagtiging van huishoudings deur voedselsekerheid: Lesse van Maposa-gemeenskap. Dié riglyne vorm die basis vir die implementering van ʼn ekklesiologie van voedselsekerheid deur die RCZ, die CCZ en Zambië in geheel. Hoofstuk 7 is ʼn opsomming van die navorsingswerk soos bespreek in Hoofstuk 2 tot 6.

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