The adaptation of an appropriate screening tool for the early detection of malnutrition in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) in a psychiatric hospital in North West Province (South Africa)

Nel, Maretha (2012-12)

Thesis (MNutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: Considering the myriad of risk factors causing nutritional deficiency, as well as the prevalence of malnutrition and feeding problems experienced by individuals with intellectual disability (ID), early detection and diagnosis of malnutrition in this population group is essential. Objectives: The main aim and objectives of the study were to determine the degree of malnutrition and body composition in individuals with ID living in a psychiatric hospital (North West Province, South Africa), to determine which degree of ID was more prone to malnutrition, to investigate the different risk factors for malnutrition in this group of individuals, and to use this data to adapt an existing screening tool used to facilitate the easier identification of malnutrition. Methodology: An observational descriptive cross-sectional study, with an analytical component, was conducted. The study consisted of two phases. During the first phase, measurements were taken of individuals with ID to determine body composition and nutritional status. During the second phase, said data, as well as other factors influencing the nutritional status of individuals with ID, were used to adapt an existing screening tool to allow for easier identification of malnutrition in the study population. The adapted screening tool was tested by nursing staff. Results: The anthropometric measurements of 244 individuals with ID were determined. The overall anthropometrical status indicated that half of the study population (52,1%, n=127) had a normal nutritional status, that 38,1% (n=93) was undernourished or at risk of becoming undernourished, and that 10,0% (n=24) was either at risk of becoming or was overnourished . Men were more prone to being undernourished or at risk of becoming undernourished (48,0%, n=73), compared to women (21,7%, n=20). Although no significant difference was found in anthropometrical status across the four severities of ID (Pearson Chi-square test (ρ=0,15)), individuals with mild ID were more likely to become obese (19,4%, n=6), and individuals with profound ID were more prone to being underweight (57,1%, n=8). It was found that 41,8% (n=102) of the total study population had a waist circumference (WC) above the normal values. A significant difference was found between increased WC and severity of ID (Pearson Chi-square test (ρ=0,00)). Other risk factors that can influence nutritional status in said population included medical conditions such as hypertension (13,0%, n=32) and epilepsy (EP) (46,0%, n=112), as well as polypharmacy (71,7%, n=175). An existing malnutrition screening tool for the population with ID was adapted by means of the addition of prevalent factors (WC measurements, presence of EP and use of medications), as well as through adaptation of the scoring system. Conclusion: Using anthropometric measurements and indices for body composition, a high prevalence of malnutrition was identified in the study population of individuals with ID. The adapted screening tool was more sensitive than the original tool in identifying individuals who were at risk of malnutrition, or who were already malnourished in this study population. The research undertaken in this respect can help health care professionals to be more aware of the interaction between the severity of ID and malnutrition.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Wanneer daar gelet word op die magdom faktore wat voedingstekorte veroorsaak en op die voorkoms van wanvoeding en voedingsprobleme onder individue met intellektuele gestremdheid (IG), is dit duidelik dat vroegtydige waarneming en diagnose van wanvoeding noodsaaklik is. Doelwitte: Die hoofdoel en doelwitte van die studie was om die graad van wanvoeding sowel as die liggaamsamestelling van individue met IG te bepaal wat in ’n psigiatriese hospitaal (Noordwes Provinsie, Suid-Afrika) inwoon. Daar is bepaal watter graad van IG individue is meer geneig tot wanvoeding. Verskillende risiko faktore van wanvoeding in hierdie groep individue is ondersoek en die data is gebruik om ’n bestaande siftingshulpmiddel aan te pas om wanvoeding makliker te kan identifiseer. Metodologie: Die studie-ontwerp was ‘n dwarssnitwaarnemingstudie met ‘n analitiese komponent. Die studie het uit twee fases bestaan. Gedurende die eerste fase is antropometriese metings van individue met IG geneem om liggaamsamestelling en voedingstatus te bereken. Gedurende die tweede fase is hierdie data, sowel as ander risiko faktore wat die voedingstatus van individue beïnvloed, gebruik om ’n bestaande siftingshulpmiddel aan te pas wat die identifisering van wanvoeding in hierdie populasie kan vergemaklik. Verpleegpersoneel het die aangepaste siftingshulpmiddel uitgetoets. Resultate: Die antropometriese metings van 244 individue met IG is bepaal. Hulle algemene antropometriese status het aangedui dat die helfte van die studiepopulasie (52,1%, n=127) ’n normale voedingstatus gehad het; 38,1% (n=93) was ondervoed of het ’n risiko gehad vir ondervoeding en 10,0% (n=24) was reeds oorvoed of het ’n risiko gehad vir oorvoeding. Mans (48,0%, n=73) was meer geneig om ondervoed te wees of het ‘n groter risiko tot ondervoeding as vroue (21,7%, n=20). Daar was geen beduidende statistiese verskille in antropometriese status tussen die vier grade van IG nie (Pearson Chi-square-toets, p=0,15), alhoewel individue met matige IG ‘n groter neiging het tot obesiteit (19,35%, n=6), terwyl uitgesproke IG ’n groter neiging tot ondergewig gehad het (57,1%, n=8). Daar is bevind dat 41,8% (n=102) van die totale studiepopulasie ’n verhoogde middelomtrek gehad het. Daar was ʼn beduidende statistiese verskil tussen verhoogde middelomtrek en graad van IG (Pearson Chi-square-toets, p=0,00). Ander risiko faktore wat die voedingstatus van hierdie populasie kan beïnvloed sluit in mediese toestande soos hipertensie (13,0%, n=32) en epilepsie (46,0%, n=112), asook die gebruik van veelvuldige medikasie (71,7%, n=175). ’n Bestaande wanvoedingsiftingshulpmiddel vir die IG populasie is aangepas deur algemene faktore (middelomtrek, voorkoms van epilepsie en gebruik van veelvuldige medikasie) in te sluit en die puntestelsel aan te pas. Gevolgtrekking: Met behulp van antropometriese metings en liggaamsmassa indekse is ’n hoë voorkoms van wanvoeding in die studiepopulasie van individue met IG waargeneem. Die aangepaste siftingshulpmiddel was meer sensitief as die oorspronklike hulpmiddel om individue wat ’n risiko loop vir wanvoeding of wat reeds wangevoed is, te identifiseer in hierdie studie populasie. Hierdie navorsing kan help om gesondheidswerkers meer bewus te maak van die interaksie tussen die graad van IG en wanvoeding.

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