Rehabilitation outcomes of uninsured stroke survivors in the Helderberg Basin

Cawood, Judy (2012-12)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction: Rehabilitation is recognised as important in helping stroke survivors achieve their highest levels of functional independence and best quality of life. Conversely, a lack of rehabilitation services, and other environmental barriers, can prevent the attainment of optimal levels of functioning and advanced outcomes, such as community integration and employment. Aim of the study: To determine if uninsured stroke survivors living in the Helderberg Basin (Western Cape) reached their optimal rehabilitation outcome levels and if not, what environmental barriers contributed to this. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. Quantitative data was obtained from 53 participants, who were selected through proportional stratified random sampling. Demographic information and the health status of participants were recorded. Other instruments utilised were the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS3), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), language screening test and the ICF Core Set for Stroke (Environmental Factors). Outcome levels were categorised as described by Landrum, Schmidt and McLean, 1995. Data was subjected to statistical analysis. Qualitative data was obtained from five participants, who were chosen by means of purposive sampling. Data were analysed according to predetermined themes. Results: Six (11%) participants were classified as being on rehabilitation level 1; 21 (40%) on level 2; 16 (30%) on level 3; 8 (15%) on level 4; 2 (4%) on level 5. According to the MBI, 65% of participants required assistance with activities of daily living LOTCA scores showed that most difficulty was experienced with tests for visuomotor organization and thinking skills. Participants experienced varying degrees of difficulty with the speech and language test. A mean score of 50.84 for questions related to feelings on the SIS3 is indicative of underlying depression. Stroke survivors received limited physiotherapy and occupational therapy and even less speech therapy and dietary counselling. Occupational therapy had a significant impact on MBI (<0.01) and SIS3.6 (community mobility) (0.02) scores. Six (12%) reported assistance from a social worker. No psychological counselling was reported by any participant. A limited number of assistive devices, focussing mainly on mobility appliances had been issued. Participants regarded the most significant environmental barriers as being lack of assets (89%), transportation (88%) and general social support services, systems and policies (87%). Qualitative data showed a lack of counselling, education and training by health professionals regarding primary and secondary prevention of stroke and rehabilitation. Conclusion: Numerous environmental barriers impacted on the achievement of advanced rehabilitation outcomes. In addition to shortcomings in the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, many of the minimum standards for rehabilitation, as stipulated in the Western Cape Comprehensive Service Plan for the Implementation of Healthcare 2010, were not being met. Recommendations include establishing a designated stroke unit at Helderberg Hospital, ensuring transport, and improving the referral system to existing rehabilitation services. Increased input from core disciplines essential to stroke rehabilitation has the potential to improve outcomes. A concerted effort by health professionals is required in terms of counselling, education and training with regards to primary and secondary prevention of stroke and rehabilitation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding: Daar word algemeen aanvaar dat rehabilitasie na 'n beroerte uiters belangrik is, want dit kan beroerte oorlewendes help om die hoogste moontlike vlak van onafhanklikheid te bereik. Daarenteen kan‘n gebrek aan rehabilitasiedienste en omgewingsstruikelblokke verhoed dat ‘n oorlewende weer sy volwaardige plek in die samelewing en werksplek inneem. Doel van die projek: Om vas te stel of beroerte oorlewendes, woonagtig in die Helderberg Kom (Weskaap), sonder mediese versekering, wel hulle hoogste vlak van funksionering bereik het, en indien nie, om vas te stel watter omgewingsstruikelblokke bydraende faktore was. Metode: ‘n Beskrywende studie is uitgevoer. Kwantitatiewe data is verkry van 53 deelnemers wat lukraak gekies is deur gestratifiseerde, ewekansige steekproefneming. Demografiese inligting en die gesondheidstatus van deelnemers is aangeteken. Ander toetse wat gebruik is, is die Stroke Impak Skaal (SIS3), Gewysigde Barthel Indeks, Loewenstein Arbeidsterapie Kognitiewe Bepaling (LOTCA), taalsiftingstoets en die ICF kern stel vir beroerte (omgewingsfaktore). Uitkomsvlakke was bepaal, soos beskryf deur Landrum, Schmidt en McClean, 1995. Die data is statisties geanaliseer. Kwalitatiewe data was verkry van vyf deelnemers wat deur middel van doelgerigte steekproeftrekking gekies is. Tydens data analise is voorafbepaalde temas geidentifiseer. Resultate: Ses (11%) deelnemers was geklassifiseer as op rehabilitasie vlak 1; 21 (40%) op vlak 2; 16 (30%) op vlak 3; ag (15%) op vlak 4; twee (4%) op vlak 5. Volgens die MBI het 65% van die deelnemers bystand nodig vir daaglikse aktiwiteite. LOTCA uitslae toon dat die grootste probleme ondervind is met toetse vir visumotoriese organisasie en denkvermoëns. Deelnemers het verskillende grade van probleme ondervind met die spraak en taaltoets. ‘n Gemiddelde telling van 50.84 vir vrae met betrekking tot gevoelens in die SIS3, mag aanduidend wees van onderliggende depressie. Beroerte oorlewendes het min fisioterapie en arbeidsterapie ontvang en nog minder spraakterapie en raad van dieetkundiges. Arbeidsterapie insette het 'n beduidende impak op MBI telling (<0.01) en SIS3.6 (mobiliteit in die gemeenskap) (0.02) gehad. Ses (12%) het aangedui dat hulle hulp van maatskaplike werkers ontvang het. Nie een van die deelnemers het sielkundige berading ontvang nie. Beperkte hoeveelhede en tipes hulpmiddels is uitgereik, en was meesal om mobiliteit te verbeter. Volgens deelnemers was die grootste struikelblokke 'n gebrek aan bates (89%); vervoer (88%) en algemene sosiale ondersteuningsdienste, stelsels en beleid (87%). Kwalitatiewe data het 'n gebrek aan berading, onderrig en opleiding by gesondheidswerkers in terme van primêre en sekondêre voorkoming van beroerte en rehabilitasiedienste getoon.

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