Control of sediment diversion in run-of-river hydropower schemes

Van Heerden, Morne Jandre (2012-12)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Sedimentation and the effects it has on turbine blades was the primary problem identified in run-of-river (RoR) hydropower schemes. Sedimentation in RoR hydropower schemes also increases trash rack blockage and reduces energy output in the long-term. Damage occurs to all underwater parts that come into contact with sediment. The main concern is sediment passing through the hydropower intake and causing turbine damage. The reason for the abrasion and cavitation of turbine blades is increased sediment loads in river channels. This problem can be overcome in two ways. The first is the use of existing lakes or reservoir storage upstream as natural sand traps, and the second is by investigating the three features associated with river bend diversion, which are: the optimum diversion location in a river bend to minimise the abstraction of sediment, the optimum diversion structure angle to limit coarse sediment diversion, and the sediment load diverted through the intake. The first objective of the research was investigated by construction of a physical model of a curved river channel to determine the location of the deepest scour forming on the outside of the bend. The second objective was to test the diversion orientation to maximize the local scour and thereby limiting sediment diversion at the intake. A third objective was to compare mathematical 2D model simulated scour results with the findings of the laboratory tests to evaluate the reliability of the numerical model predictions. Finally different diverted discharge ratios were tested with different intake setups in the physical model, to evaluate the sediment load diverted. . The first experiment in the curved laboratory channel was to predict where the deepest scour takes place without a diversion structure. This was then followed by placing a diversion structure at the maximum scour position, retrieved from experiment one, and by angling the structure with reference to the flow direction. The flow direction vector was placed as a tangent to the bend and orientated at angles of 0⁰, 30⁰, 45⁰ and 60⁰ into the bend direction. The optimum diversion location was found to be positioned on the outside of the bend, approximately 60⁰ into the channel bend. The final position of maximum scour in a 90⁰ bend corresponds with the Sediment Committee and the Chinese Hydraulic Engineering Societies (1992) prediction of 60⁰ into the bend. The optimal diversion had a 30⁰ angle to the flow direction, as this presented the most efficient and effective scouring in front of the model intake. Numerical simulations were performed with the CCHE 2D (hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics) modelling program. The numerical results were compared to the physical results to validate CCHE as a beneficial simulation tool. It was found that the numerical model predicted the scour depths at the intakes tested with an accuracy of 43.8%, which is within the accuracy range of the sediment transport equation used by the numerical model. The final experiment was the diversion of sediment with different intake level heights and discharges. It was evident from the results that low sediment diversion ratios were achieved with a diverted discharge ratio of 50% or less. The intake elevation highest above the channel bed diverted the least sediment. The interrelationship between Diverted Discharge Ratio (DDR), Diverted Froude number Ratio (DFrR) and Diverted Sediment load Ratio (SDR) was established in the study. It is recommended that RoR schemes have sand traps downstream of the diversion structures and that turbines are coated with HVOF to overcome the power loss arising due to the excessive erosion of hydro turbines.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sedimentasie en die invloed wat dit het op turbines was die primêre probleem geïdentifiseer in “run-of-river” (RoR) hidrokrag-skemas. Die sediment wat saam met die water uit ‟n rivier uitgekeer word beskadig die inlaatrooster en verlaag kragopwekking in die langtermyn. Skade word aangerig aan alle onderwatertoerusting en masjinerie wat aan sediment blootgestel word. Die grootste probleem tydens die uitkering van water is die growwe sediment wat daarmee deur die onttrekking inlaat gaan en turbineskade veroorsaak. Soos wat die sedimentlading in die rivier drasties toeneem, sal afslyting en kavitasie van turbinelemme meer gereeld voorkom. Dié probleem kan op twee maniere beperk word. Die een is die gebruik van bestaande opgaardamme stroomop, en die tweede is deur die ondersoek van drie kenmerke van rivierdraaie en uitkeringstrukture, bv. die optimale uitskurings posisie in 'n rivierdraai (sonder ʼn struktuur) om die diepste uitskuringposisie op die buitekant van die draai te bepaal, die optimale uitkeringsstruktuuroriëntasie wat maksimum uitskuring verseker en die sediment uitkering beperk, en die lading van sedimentonttrekking deur die inlaat. Die eerste doelwit van die navorsing is ondersoek deur ʼn fisiese model te bou van ʼn kronkelkanaal en te bepaal waar die diepste uitskring plaasvind op die buitekant van die draai. Die tweede doelwit van die studie was om die optimale uitkeringshoek te bepaal vir 'n uitkeringstruktuur sodat die uitskuring by die inlaat ʼn maksimum is om die uitkering van sediment te beperk. ʼn Derde doelwit was om die akkuraatheid van ʼn wiskundige model se uitskuring voorspelling te toets teen die waargenome laboratorium resultate. Die finale doelwit was om vir verskillende inlaatontwerpe, rivier- en uitkeervloeie die sedimentladings wat uitgekeer word te ondersoek. Die eerste eksperiment in die kronkelende kanaal was voorberei om die optimale uitskuring in die draai te bepaal. Dit is gevolg deur toetse met uitkeerstrukture by die maksimum uitskurings posisie te plaas en die hoek van die struktuur dan te verander met verwysing na die vloeirigting. Die vloeirigting vektor was as 'n raaklyn geplaas op die kanaal draai en georiënteer met hoeke: 0⁰, 30⁰, 45⁰ en 60⁰, in die rigting van die draai. Die optimale uitskurings posisie was aan die buiterand van die kanaal draai gevind, ongeveer 60⁰ in die draai in. Die maksimum uitskuur posisie van 'n 90⁰ kanaal draai stem ooreen met SC en CHES (1992) se resultaat van 60⁰ in die draai in. Daar was ook genoegsame bewyse dat 'n optimale uitkeerwerke oriëntasie van 30⁰ die doeltreffendste en effektiefste uitskuring sal gee. Numeriese simulasies is deur middel van 'n twee dimensionele wiskundige model CCHE 2D (hidro- en sedimentdinamika) uitgevoer. Die numeriese resultate was vergelyk met die laboratoriumresultate om die CCHE program te verifieer as 'n voordelige simulasie program. Daar is gevind dat die wiskundige model die uitskuurdieptes by die inlate met ʼn akkuraatheid van 43.8 % voorspel, wat binne die akkuraatheid is van die sedimentvervoervergelyking wat deur die numeriese model gebruik word. Die finale eksperiment was die uitkering van sediment met verskillende inlaathoogtes en uitkerings sedimentladings. Uit die toetse was dit duidelik dat 'n lae sediment uitkeerverhouding behaal kan word met 'n uitkeerverhouding van 50% en minder. Verdere waarnemings het ook gewys dat die inlaathoogte van die uitkeerstruktuur met die optimale resultate die hoogste bokant die rivierbedding was. Die verwantskap tussen die uitgekeerde deurstromingverhouding, die uitgekeerde Froude getal verhouding en die uitgekeerde sedimentlading is bepaal in die navorsing. Dit word aanbeveel dat sandvangkanale stroomaf van uitkeerwerke geplaas word en dat turbines met HVOF as bedekkingsmateriaal beskerm word om kragverliese as gevolg van buitensporige erosie van die turbines te voorkom.

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