A user interface for a seven degree of freedom surgical robot

Heunis, Jacobus Stephanus (2012-12)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis describes the process of developing a user interface for a seven degree of freedom (DOF), minimally invasive surgical robot. For the first two main stages of the overall project, completed by previous students, a primary slave manipulator (PSM) and a secondary slave manipulator (SSM) were developed. The stage in this thesis concentrates on creating a joystick that can control the combined movement of the PSM and SSM. Background information on the field of robotic surgery, with specific reference to current systems’ user interfaces, is given and the technical aspects of the PSM and SSM are determined. This is followed by the motivation and main objectives of the thesis. Objectives were divided into the main categories of mechanical design, electronic design, control system design and testing. The mechanical design of the joystick progresses through a concept development stage, before a final seven DOF articulated arm design is presented and evaluated based on engineering specifications. Aluminium is used as the construction material; electromagnetic brakes are specified for each joint, leading to the final assembly, which is a constructed joystick fulfilling all requirements. The electronic design implements magnetic rotary encoders for the joystick’s position and orientation tracking as well as designs of the necessary power and control circuitry to enable correct joystick functioning. The interfacing of the PSM and SSM had to enable successful communication capabilities between the master and the slave. Several necessary adjustments were therefore made to the slave system, after which the joystick and robot were electronically interfaced to provide a direct serial communication line. For control system design, the joystick and robot were modelled according to the Denavit-Hartenberg principle, which allows direct relation between the position and orientation of the respective end effectors on the joystick and robot sides. Forward kinematic equations were then applied to the joystick; the desired position and orientation of the robot end effector were determined, and inverse kinematic equations were applied to these data to establish the robot’s joint variables. This stage ended with the development of two operational modes: one where only the SSM motors are controlled in order for the slave to follow the master’s movements, and the other where the PSM’s motors are controlled separately. The simultaneous control of all robot motors could not be demonstrated due to fundamental mechanical flaws in the PSM and SSM designs. Finally, testing was undertaken to demonstrate movement control of the robot by the joystick. The intuitiveness of the product was also tested successfully. The study ends with the presentation of the conclusions, the main conclusions being the successful development and testing of a joystick that controls the movement of a surgical robot, as well as the achievement of all main thesis objectives.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis beskryf die proses vir die ontwikkeling van ’n gebruikerskoppelvlak vir ’n sewevryheidsgraad-, minimaal indringende chirurgiese robot. In die eerste twee hoofstadia van die algehele projek, voltooi deur ander studente, is ’n primêre slaafmanipuleerder (PSM) en ’n sekondêre slaafmanipuleerder (SSM) ontwikkel. Die stadium in hierdie tesis konsentreer op die skep van ’n stuurstok waarmee die gekombineerde beweging van die PSM en SSM beheer kan word. Agtergrondinligting oor die gebied van robotiese chirurgie word verskaf, met spesifieke verwysing na die gebruikerskoppelvlakke van huidige stelsels, en die spesifikasies van die PSM en SSM word vasgestel. Daarna volg die beweegrede sowel as die belangrikste oogmerke van die projek. Die oogmerke is in die hoofafdelings van meganiese ontwerp, elektroniese ontwerp, beheerstelselontwerp en toetsing verdeel. Die meganiese ontwerp van die stuurstok behels ’n konsepontwikkelingstadium, wat uitloop op ’n finale sewevryheidsgraad-ontwerp, wat dan op grond van ingenieurspesifikasies aangebied en beoordeel word. Aluminium word as boumateriaal gebruik; elektromagnetiese remme word vir elke koppeling gespesifiseer, en die finale samestel is ’n gekonstrueerde stuurstok wat aan alle vereistes voldoen. Die elektroniese ontwerp behels die gebruik van magnetiese draaikodeerders om die stuurstok se posisie en oriëntasie te bepaal, sowel as meganismes met die nodige krag- en beheerstroombaanwerk om die stuurstok reg te laat funksioneer. ’n Koppelvlak tussen die PSM en die SSM moes suksesvolle kommunikasie tussen die meester en die slaaf bewerkstellig. Verskeie nodige aanpassings is dus aan die slaafstelsel aangebring, waarna die stuurstok en robot elektronies gekoppel is om ’n direkte reekskommunikasielyn te skep. Vir beheerstelselontwerp is die stuurstok en robot volgens die Denavit- Hartenberg-beginsel gemodelleer, wat ’n direkte verhouding tussen die posisie en oriëntasie van die onderskeie eindpunt-effektors aan die stuurstok- en robotkant daarstel. Voorwaartse kinematiese vergelykings is daarna op die stuurstok toegepas; die gewenste posisie en oriëntasie van die robotiese eindpunt-effektor is bepaal, waarna terugwaartse kinematiese vergelykings op hierdie data toegepas is om die robot se koppelingveranderlikes te bepaal. Hierdie afdeling word afgesluit met die ontwikkeling van twee bedryfsmodusse: een waar slegs die SSM-motore beheer word sodat die slaaf die meester se bewegings kan navolg, en die ander waar die PSM se motore afsonderlik beheer word. Die gelyktydige beheer van al die robotmotore kon nie getoon word nie weens fundamentele meganiese tekortkominge in die PSM- en SSM-ontwerp. Laastens is ’n toets uitgevoer om die bewegingsbeheer van die robot deur die stuurstok te toon. Die intuïtiwiteit van die produk is ook suksesvol getoets. Die studie sluit af met die projekgevolgtrekkings, waarvan die belangrikste die suksesvolle ontwikkeling en toetsing van ’n stuurstok is wat daarin slaag om die beweging van ’n chirurgiese robot te beheer, sowel as die verwesenliking van alle hoofprojekoogmerke.

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