Non-destructive measurement of internal fruit quality using SQUID-NMR techniques

Nturambirwe, Jean Frederic Isingizwe (2012-12)

Thesis(MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The SQUID-NMR technique has been increasingly recommended by many researchers as holding a lot of potential, and it is believed it will become an invaluable tool for non-destructive evaluation in the future. Most of its potential is yet to be exploited. Non-destructive quality control of food products is one of the applications where such a system is being tried. Much of the progress that has been made in improving such a system to the present degree of user friendliness and cost effectiveness shows that, with more effort, it would be possible to implement the technology for on-line sorting, and possibly to reduce it down to hand-held devices. The goal was to investigate the feasibility of the internal fruit quality measurements using the NMR technique, and to develop a SQUID system suitable for SQUID-NMR application, intended for a later integration in a full SQUID-NMR system. A working dc SQUID was manufactured on an YBCO (Y Ba2Cu3O7􀀀 ) thin film deposited on a 10 mm x 10 mm MgO substrate. The SQUID was made of microbridge Josephson junctions, patterned by using the double resist laser lithography method, implemented during the course of this manufacturing process. The test of the SQUID showed a non-hysteretic current-voltage characteristic. Under the action of bringing a magnet closer to the SQUID under test, and then retracting it, the modulation of the I-V curve was observed. The critical current of the SQUID was 20 A and the resistance was 5.5 A series of experiments were performed on destructive measurements of the sugar content in table grapes using NMR, in order to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. The total sugars(TSS) measurements of the same samples were carried out by refractometry, chosen as a conventional method for validation. The NMR measurements were evaluated to be 5.4% precise and have an accuracy of 9.3% relative to the refractometry measurements. A further series of experiments were carried out on a high-Tc SQUID-NMR system. A high correlation coefficient (0.85) of the increasing values of the T1 and T2 relaxation times to the decreasing concentration of sugar (sucrose) in water was obtained. Non-destructive measurements T1 and T2 in table grapes suggested a possible prediction of sugar content in table grapes from the values of T1 or T2. This technique also presented many advantages compared to the conventional high field NMR technique, such as the fast measurements that do not require spectral processing, the ease of sample preparation, and its non-destructive nature.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die SQUID-NMR tegniek word al hoe meer aanbeveel deur navorsers oor die groot potensiaal, en dit beloof om in die toekoms van onskatbare waarde te wees in nie vernietigende evaluering. Die potensiaal moet grotendeels nog ontgin word, en die nie vernietigende kwaliteitsbeheer van voedselprodukte is een van die toepassings wat hier getoets word. Die vooruitgang tot dusver om die stelsel te verbeter wat die gebruikersvriendelikheid en koste-effektiwiteit betref, toon dat met effens meer moeite dit moontlik sal wees om die tegnologie aan te pas vir lynsortering van vrugte, en om dit dalk ook as handtoestel beskikbaar te stel. Die vooruitgang tot dusver om die stelsel te verbeter wat die gebruikersvriendelikheid en koste-effektiwiteit betref, toon dat met effens meer moeite dit moontlik sal wees om die tegnologie aan te pas vir lynsortering van vrugte, en om dit dalk ook as handtoestel beskikbaar te stel. Die doel is om die uitvoerbaarheid van interne vrugtekwaliteit metings deur hierdie tegniek te ondersoek en om ’n SQUID stelsel te ontwikkel wat gepas is vir SQUIDNMR toepassing, met die doel om dit later in ’n volledige SQUID-NMR stelsel te kan integreer. ’n Werkende GS-SQUID is vervaardig op ’n YBCO dunfilm wat op ’n 10 mm x 10 mm MgO substraat gedeponeer is. Die SQUID is van mikro-brug Josephson aansluitings/ voegvlakke, waarop in die loop van die vervaardigingsproses ’n patroon m et dubbelweerstand laser litografie neergelê is. Toets van die SQUID het ’n niehisterese stroom-spanning as kenmerkend getoon. Die nader bring en terugtrekking van ’n magneet het gelei tot waarneming van die modulasie van die I-V kurwe. Die kritieke stroom van die SQUID was 20 A en die weerstand was 5.5 ohm. ’n Reeks eksperimente is uitgevoer oor vernietigende metings van die suikerinhoud van tafeldruiwe met gebruik van NMR, om die gangbaarheid van hierdie tegniek te evalueer. Totale suikers (TSS) metings van dieselfde monsters is uitgevoer deur refraktometrie, wat gekies is as gebruiklike metode vir geldigheidsbepaling. Die NMR metings is as 5.4% presies/noukeurig evalueer, en met ’n akkuraatheid van 9.3% teenoor die refraktometrie metingsyfers. ’n Verdere reeks eksperimente is uitgevoer op ’n hoë-Tc SQID-NMR stelsel. ’n Hoë korrelasiekoëffisiënt van 0.85 van die toenemende waardes van T1 en T2 ontspantye teenoor die afname in konsentrasie van sukrose in water is waargeneem. Nie-vernietigende metings van T1 eb T2 in tafeldruiwe het gelei tot die moontlikheid van gebruik van hierdie tegniek om suikerinhoud van tafeldruiwe te voorspel. Die tegniek het ook baie voordele getoon in teenstelling met die gebruiklike hoëveld NMR tegniek, onder andere dat hierdie metings vinniger is, nie verdere verwerking van die spektrum benodig nie, die maklike voorbereiding van die monsters en die nie-vernietigende aard van die proses.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71801
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