Donor decision making in a non-profit religious organisation

Weideman, Eleanor (2012-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The non-profit sector has grown and changed substantially since its origins more than 2 000 years ago. At present there is an increase in organised voluntary activity around the globe, which reflects a set of social and technological changes, as well as an increasing lack of confidence in the ability of the state to render certain vital services. NPOs that do not work in the fields of housing, the aged, HIV/AIDS and education, for instance organisations doing missionary work, are faced with the difficult task of procuring funds within this highly competitive environment. The overall purpose of relationship marketing is customer retention and development, not simply a series of transactions. With this in mind, it seems that relationship marketing has an important role to play in the non-profit sector. Why is it then so difficult to "sell brotherhood like soap"? To answer this question tools have been developed and adapted to fit the non-profit sector. Donor behaviour plays a crucial role in the survival of an organisation and insights into behaviour can give the organisation an edge over its competitors. In the case of this study the research problem relates to the identification of the dimensions impacting on donor behaviour in religious (Christian) organisations. A conceptual model of donor behaviour in religious non-profit organisations was developed and used for the eventual formulation of 23 hypotheses to guide the study and to represent the possible relationships. For the statistical analysis it was deemed necessary to revise both the model and the proposed hypotheses. The model was split into three models: - Perceptions of non-profit organisations; - Individual donor characteristics; and - Donor perceptions of the non-profit organisation. A thorough overview of the literature was undertaken, mainly to investigate the nature of the non-profit sector in general as well as in South Africa, its marketing and behaviour of its donors. The conceptual model that was developed through the literature study was used to develop a measuring instrument specifically for this study for collecting primary data. It was empirically tested in a religious (Christian) non-profit organisation in South Africa by collecting primary data. Questionnaires were mailed to its whole donor database. The questionnaires returned were captured with the aid of an Excel spreadsheet and merged with data from the donor database. The first step was to assess the validity and reliability of the measurement instrument used. Next, an exploratory factor analysis was done to identify the unique factors evident in the study data. The next step entailed testing the proposed theoretical model by means of the "Structural Equation Modelling" technique. The results of the data analysis led to the creation of a model suitable for the management of the donors of a Christian missionary organisation. This study is a pioneering study of donor behaviour in South African religious non-profit organisations, in particular Christian organisations. It is clear from the results that donors of religious organisations react differently than donors of other non-profit organisations and therefore that different approaches are needed to secure Christian donor loyalty and trust.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die nie-winsgewende sektor het sedert die oorsprong daarvan, meer as 2 000 jaar gelede aansienlik gegroei en verander. Op die oomblik is daar oral in die wêreld 'n toename in georganiseerde vrywillige optrede. Hierdie neiging weerspieël sekere maatskaplike en tegnologiese veranderinge, asook 'n toenemende gebrek aan vertroue in die staat se vermoë om sekere noodsaaklike dienste te lewer. Die nie-winsorganisasies wat nie binne die veld van behuising, bejaardesorg, MIV/VIGS en onderwys werk nie, soos byvoorbeeld organisasies wat sendingwerk doen, het 'n moeilike taak om fondse te bekom. Die oorwegende doel van verhoudingsbemarking is die behoud en ontwikkeling van klante, nie net 'n reeks transaksies nie. As hierdie feit in ag geneem word, word dit duidelik dat verhoudingsbemarking 'n belangrike rol binne die sektor te speel het. Hoekom is dit dan so moeilik om "broederskap soos seep te verkoop"? Om hierdie vraag te beantwoord is hulpmiddele ontwikkel wat aangepas is by die behoeftes van hierdie sektor. Donateursgedrag speel 'n uiters belangrike rol in die oorlewing van 'n organisasie en daarom kan insig in hierdie gedrag die organisasie 'n voorsprong gee bo die van sy mededingers. In die geval van hierdie studie gaan dit oor die identifisering van dimensies wat donateurs se gedrag beïnvloed binne religieuse (Christelike) organisasies. 'n Konseptuele model is ontwikkel om donateurs, soos dit verband hou met religieuse nie-winsorganisasies se gedrag, te ontleed. Die model is gebruik as riglyn vir die navorsing, asook om uiteindelik 23 hipoteses te formuleer en hulle moontlike onderlinge verhoudings uiteen te sit. Gebaseer op die statistiese ontledingsproses, is die model en die voorgestelde hipoteses aangepas. Die model is onderverdeel in drie modelle: - Persepsies van nie-winsorganisasies; - Individuele kenmerke van donateurs; en - Donateur persepsies van die nie-winsorganisasie. 'n Deeglike oorsig van die literatuur is gedoen, hoofsaaklik om ondersoek in te stel na die omstandighede van die nie-winssekor oor die algemeen en veral binne Suid-Afrika, asook na donateurs se gedrag. Die konseptuele model wat ontwikkel is volgens die literatuurstudie, is empiries getoets binne 'n Christelike nie-winsorganisasie in Suid-Afrika. 'n Metingsinstrument is spesfiek ontwikkel om primêre data te verkry en vraelyste is gepos aan die totale dontateurbasis van die organisasie. Die inligting van die vraelyste wat teruggestuur is, is opgeneem in 'n Excel-spreitabel en saamgevoeg met inligting van die donateurdatabasis. Die eerste stap was om die geldigheid en betroubaarheid van die metingsinstrument te bepaal. Daarna is 'n ontleding van verkenningsfaktore gedoen, wat gebruik is om unieke faktore uit die navorsingsinligting te identifiseer. Die volgende stap was die toetsing van die teoretiese model volgens 'n erkende toetstegniek wat gebruik word vir strukturele vergelykings. Die resultate van die ontleding is daarna gebruik om 'n geskikte model te skep vir die bestuur van donateurs van 'n Christelike sendingorganisasie. Die navorsing van die gedrag van donateurs van religieuse nie-winsorganisasies en veral Christelike organisasies is baanbrekerswerk in Suid-Afrika. Die resultate dui ook daarop dat donateurs van religieuse organisasies verskillend reageer as donateurs van ander nie-winsorganisasies en dat ander benaderings dus noodsaaklik is om eersgenoemde se lojaliteit en vertroue te bekom en te behou.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71794
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