Interaction of water deficit, canopy modification and ripening : effect on the phenolic and colour composition of Shiraz grapes & subsequent wine

Van Noordwyk, Marelize (2012-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Phenolic compounds are important quality indicators of a red wine, as they can contribute to the colour of a young red wine, colour stability during ageing as well as astringency, bitterness, body and overall mouthfeel properties. Wine composition is commonly influenced by winemaking and viticultural practices. In South Africa it often happens that vines are excessively vigorous, resulting in canopies that are too dense, which in turn could have a negative effect on the quantity and quality of the grapes produced. Viticultural practices such as judicious canopy management and irrigation are designed to control vine vigour and yield, thus improving fruit ripening and colour development. Artificial shading and water deficit have been reported to have an influence on the sensory properties of red wine as well as on the flavonoid composition. These effects are dependent on a number of factors, however, including the season, cultivar, light intensity, and the extent and timing of water deficit. There is limited research on the possible interactive effects of grapevine water deficits and canopy manipulation on grape and wine flavonoid composition in Shiraz, as well as the relationships between berry and wine composition. We thus investigated the effect of canopy reduction in combination with water deficit on the phenolic and colour composition of Shiraz grapes at different levels of ripeness, and in their corresponding wines after alcoholic and malolactic fermentation as well as after six months’ ageing. This study found that it is possible to improve the phenolic composition of grapes and wine by shoot removal, and some of the tendencies in the wines were also observed after the ageing period. If the shoot removal is not performed at a very early stage, sunburn damage can occur and this will result in berries with a lower mass and volume at harvest due to excessive exposure without the berry having adapted to the imposed conditions. Harvesting at different ripeness levels also affected the chemical and phenolic composition of the grapes and resulting wines. The water deficit effect on most phenolic parameters measured in the grapes and wine was not as prominent as that of the canopy manipulation treatment. This study improved our understanding of how an improvement in the canopy microclimate of Shiraz could be reflected in the phenolic composition of wines, along with a potentially important effect of harvesting date. On this basis it may be possible to attain a specific wine style. Harvesting at a ripe stage, for example, could result in the production of wines with higher colour density and astringency, while unripe grapes could result in wines with higher levels of perceivable fresh berry attributes. In particular, canopy reduction could increase the astringency and body of wines made from grapes subjected to water deficit.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Fenoliese verbindings is belangrike kwaliteitsparameters van rooiwyn, aangesien dit kan bydra tot die kleur van ‘n rooiwyn, kleurstabiliteit tydens veroudering sowel as frankheid, bitterigheid en mondgevoel. ‘n Wyn se fenoliese samestelling word algemeen bepaal deur wynmaak- en wingerdkundige praktyke. In Suid-Afrika gebeur dit gereeld dat wingerde uitermatig groeikragtig is, wat lei tot te digte lower wat sodoende ‘n negatiewe effek op kwantiteit en kwaliteit van die druiwe wat geproduseer word, het. Wingerdkundige praktyke soos oordeelkundige lowerbestuur en besproeiing is ontwerp om wingerdstokke se groeikrag en opbrengs te beheer, en sodoende vrugrypwording en kleurontwikkeling te verbeter. Kunsmatige beskaduwing en waterstres is gerapporteer om ‘n invloed te hê op die sensoriese eienskappe van rooiwyn sowel as op die flavonoïedsamestelling. Hierdie effekte is egter afhanklik van ‘n verskeidenheid faktore, insluitende die seisoen, kultivar, ligintensiteit en die mate en tyd van waterstres toegepas. Daar is beperkte navorsing op die moontlike interaktiewe effekte van waterstres en lowermanipulasie op die druif en wyn flavonoïedsamestelling in Shiraz, sowel as die verhoudings tussen druif en wyn samestelling. Ons het dus die effekte van lowerbestuur in kombinasie met waterstres op die fenoliese en kleursamestelling van Shiraz druiwe by verskillende rypheidsvlakke ondersoek, asook in hul ooreenstemmende wyne na alkoholieseen appelmelksuurfermentasie sowel as na ses maande veroudering. Hierdie studie het gevind dat dit moontlik is om die fenoliese samestelling van druiwe en wyn deur lootverwydering te verbeter, en sommige van die tendense is ook waargeneem in die wyn na die verouderingsperiode. Indien lootverwydering nie toegepas word by ‘n baie vroeë stadium nie, kan sonbrand voorkom en dit kan lei tot korrels met ‘n laer massa en volume by oes as gevolg van oormatige blootstelling sonder dat die korrel aangepas het by die spesifieke kondisies. Oes by verskillende rypheidsvlakke affekteer ook die chemiese en fenoliese samestelling van die druiwe en ooreenstemmende wyne. Die waterstreseffek op meeste van die fenoliese parameters gemeet in druiwe en wyn was nie so prominent soos dié van die lowermanipulasie behandeling nie. Hierdie studie het ons begrip verbeter van hoe ‘n verbetering van die lower mikroklimaat van Shiraz gereflekteer kan word op die fenoliese samestelling van die wyn, saam met ‘n potensiële belangrike effek van oesdatum. Op grond van hierdie basis is dit dus moontlik om ‘n spesifieke wynstyl te verkry. Oes by ‘n ryp stadium, byvoorbeeld, kan die produksie van wyn met ‘n hoër kleurdigtheid en frankheid tot gevolg hê, terwyl onryp druiwe wyne met hoër vlakke van waarneembare vars bessiekenmerke tot gevolg kan hê. Verlaging van lowerdigtheid kan veral die frankheid en mondgevoel van wyne gemaak van druiwe blootgestel aan waterstres, verbeter.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71763
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