Preceptors’ and faculty’s opinions about the implementation of preceptorship in the diploma nursing curriculum in Botswana
Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.
Background: Preceptorship refers to a teaching and learning approach through which a well experienced clinician is contracted to provide clinical teaching, supervision, role‐modeling of professional and clinical practice skills and assessment of students in a clinical setting. This approach often involves three groups of people, namely: faculty, students, and clinicians (preceptors). The preceptor in this study refers to a registered nurse who supervises and conducts clinical assessment of students in a clinical area, while at the same time is responsible for patient care. The focus of this study was to explore preceptors’ opinions regarding the implementation of preceptorship in the diploma in the nursing curriculum diploma in the nursing curriculum in Botswana. Emphasis was placed on seeking information on how preceptorship is implemented, the strengths and challenges regarding its implementation and suggestions as to how it should be strengthened to contribute positively towards teaching and learning of students. Methodology: A mixed cross‐sectional descriptive design, using a survey was used. . The design was adopted because of its ability to provide a broad understanding of the concept under study by allowing participants to share their experiences and opinions about a specified situation. Both the qualitative and quantitative data were collected simultaneously. A standardized self‐developed structured questionnaire using both closed ended and few open ended questions and consisting of scaled self‐report items and checklists was used to collect data from forty‐four (44) preceptors and three (3) third year level coordinators from the three (3) health training institutions. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS, while the qualitative data were analyzed for frequency of common themes. Descriptive statistics in the form of frequency tables and charts, as well as measures of central tendencies, were used in the analysis of quantitative data. Results: The findings revealed that preceptorship program was not well coordinated as there were no preceptorship manuals to guide the implementation of preceptorship program. On the positive side, however, preceptors felt comfortable and competent to supervise and assess students, despite the fact that most of them had not received preceptorship training or orientation. With regard to preceptor support, it was evident that there was need for major support in regard to improved communication between preceptor and faculty, improved support by the health facility manager and the need for strengthening preceptor training and orientation. The majority of the respondents have recommended for preceptorship orientation /training targeted at addressing some of the following topics: Student and preceptor roles, curriculum requirements, clinical teaching and assessment skills, leadership skills and how to access resources from the health training institutions. A significant number of preceptors felt that it was important to receive feedback about students’ progress from faculty and to receive feedback from students regarding their experiences in the clinical internship sites. Lastly, preceptors also felt that there was need for introducing incentives into the preceptorship program Conclusion The key areas that emerged from the study indicated an uncoordinated and unstructured preceptorship program in the diploma nursing curriculum. Preceptor support is limited as evidenced by report of lack of training or orientation of preceptors to their preceptorship role. To ensure sustainability of preceptorship program there is need to improve the following areas: preceptorship training and orientation, and preceptorship support by both the health training institution and the health facility managers. Key words: Preceptors, preceptorship, orientation, socialization, student assessment, and faculty support, clinical teaching, mentor, clinical supervisor.