Fluid balance monitoring in critically ill patients

Diacon, Annette (2012-12)

Thesis (MCur)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Motivation. Homeostasis is a dynamic and balanced process that must be maintained in order to for health to be sustained (Scales & Pilsworth, 2008:50-57). In critically illness, homeostasis is disrupted and along with inadequate tissue perfusion potentially leads to multiple organ failure (Elliot, Aitken & Chaboyer, 2007:437). The fluid balance of a patient is essential for preserving homeostasis and to maintain optimal tissue perfusion, thus monitoring fluid balance plays an important role in the managing a critically ill patient. Current literature and best nursing practice emphasise the importance of accurate and correct fluid balance monitoring in critically ill patients including recording fluid intake and output on a purpose designed fluid balance sheet. Research has shown that the patient’s outcome after critical illness is influenced by the fluid balance management including fluid balance monitoring (Vincent, Sakr, Sprung, Ranieri, Reinhart, Gerlach, Moreno, Carlet, Le Gall & Payen, 2006:344-353), while several studies have questioned accuracy of fluid balance calculation in various acute care settings (Johnson & Monkhouse, 2009:291; Smith, Fraser, Plowright, Dennington, Seymour, Oliver & MacLellan, 2008:28-29). In an informal audit performed in a local critical care unit, seven out of ten fluid balances were incorrectly calculated. Clinical experience of nurses’ inattention to fluid balance monitoring, together with the informal audit data, reveals that fluid balance monitoring is generally not performed correctly or accurately by nurses working in critical care units. The aim of the study was to describe the perspectives and practices of registered nurses in critical care units with regard to fluid balance monitoring. Methods. A quantitative approach in the form of an audit was applied to establish the current practice of fluid balance monitoring. A survey was conducted among registered nurses to gain insight into their perspectives and knowledge of fluid balance monitoring. The sample for the audit was drawn from fluid balance records, which met the study inclusion criteria. The survey was conducted with a sample of participants from registered nurses in critical care units from a particular hospital group, in compliance with the inclusion criteria. The researcher collected the data using a purpose designed audit tool and questionnaire. Results. The audit revealed that 90 % of the sampled fluid balance records were inaccurate (tolerated deviation 0-10ml) and 79% were inaccurate if a deviation of 50ml would be tolerated. Furthermore the inaccuracy in calculation was larger in patients whoreceived diuretics. The questionnaire data revealed that registered nurses considered fluid balance monitoring as an important part of patient nursing care and were aware that inaccuracy can pose a risk to the patient. The nurses feel responsible for performing fluid balance monitoring. In addition the nurses gave recommendations for the practice. Discussion. The results of this study are similar to other studies done internationally. The nurses are aware of the importance of the fluid balance, and recognise the inaccuracies. With our limited resources, both financial and in terms of nursing staff, the solutions have to be very basic and practical. Key words: fluid balance, critical care, accuracy and auditing, best practice

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Motivering. Homeostase is ’n dinamiese en gebalanseerde proses wat onderhou moet word vir gesondheid om handhaaf te word (Scales & Pilsworth, 2008:50-57). Onder toestande van kritieke siekte, word homeostase onderbreek en kan dit saam met onvoldoende weefselperfusie moontlik tot veelvuldige orgaanmislukking lei (Elliot, Aitken & Chaboyer, 2007:437). Die vloeistofbalans van ’n pasiënt is van die uiterste belang vir die preservering van homeostase en om optimale weefselperfusie te onderhou, en dus speel die monitering van vloeistofbalans ’n belangrike rol in die bestuur van die pasiënt wat kritiek siek is. Die huidige literatuur en beste verpleegkundige praktyk beklemtoon die belangrikheid van akkurate en korrekte vloeistofbalansmonitering in pasiënte wat kritiek siek is, insluitend die aantekening van vloeistofinname en -afskeiding op ’n vorm wat vir die doel pasgemaak is. Navorsing het getoon dat die pasiënt se uitkoms ná kritiese siekte deur vloeistofbalansbestuur, insluitend vloeistofbalansmonitering, beïnvloed word (Vincent, Sakr, Sprung, Ranieri, Reinhart, Gerlach, Moreno, Carlet, Le Gall & Payen, 2006:344-353), terwyl verskeie studies die akkuraatheid van die vloeistofbalansberekening in ’n verskeidenheid kritiekesorgeenhede bevraagteken het (Johnson & Monkhouse, 2009:291; Smith, Fraser, Plowright, Dennington, Seymour, Oliver & MacLellan, 2008:28-29). In ’n informele oudit wat in ’n plaaslike kritiekesorgeenheid uitgevoer is, is daar gevind dat sewe uit tien vloeistofbalanse verkeerdelik bereken is. Kliniese ervaring van verpleërs se agtelosigheid met betrekking tot vloeistofbalansmonitering, tesame met die data vanuit die informele oudit, wys dat vloeistofbalansmonitering oor die algemeen nie korrek of akkuraat deur verpleërs in die kritiekesorgeenheid uitgevoer word nie. Die doelwit van hierdie studie was om die perspektiewe en praktyke van geregistreerde verpleërs in kritiekesorgeenhede met betrekking tot vloeistofbalansmonitering te beskryf. Metodes. ’n Kwantitatiewe benadering in die vorm van ’n oudit is gebruik om die huidige praktyk van vloeistofbalansmonitering te bepaal. ’n Opname is onder geregistreerde verpleërs gedoen om insig te bekom oor hulle perspektiewe oor en kennis van vloeistofbalansmonitering. Die steekproef vir die oudit is geneem uit vloeistofbalansrekords wat aan die studiekriteria voldoen het. Die opname is gedoen onder ’n steekproef van geregistreerde verpleërs in ’n kritiekesorgeenheid van ’n spesifieke hospitaalgroep, in ooreenstemming met die insluitingskriteria. Die navorser het die data met ’n pasgemaakte ouditinstrument en vraelys versamel. Resultate. Die oudit het gewys dat 90% van die vloeistofbalansrekords in die steekproef onakkuraat was (toleransie verskil 0-50ml) en 79% was onakkuraat als een verskil van 50 ml was tolereer. Verder was die onakkuraatheid in die berekenings groter in pasiënte wat urineermiddels ontvang het. Die data vanaf die vraelys het gewys dat geregistreerde verpleërs vloeistofbalansmonitering as ’n belangrike deel van die verpleging van ’n pasiënt beskou en daarvan bewus is dat onakkuraatheid ’n risiko vir die pasiënt kan inhou. Die verpleërs voel daarvoor verantwoordelik om die vloeistofbalansmonitering uit te voer. Hulle het ook aanbevelings vir die praktyk gemaak. Bespreking. Die resultate van hierdie studie is baie soortgelyk aan dié van ander internasionale studies. Die verpleërs is bewus van die belangrikheid van die vloeistofbalans en is bewus van die onakkuraathede. Met ons beperkte hulpbronne, beide finansieel en in terme van verpleegpersoneel, is dit noodsaaklik dat die oplossings baie basies en prakties is. Sleutelwoorde: vloeistofbalans, kritieke sorg, akkuraatheid en ouditering, beste praktyk

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71640
This item appears in the following collections: