Grape and wine quality of V. vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon/99R in response to irrigation using winery wastewater

Schoeman, Charl (2012-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Grapevine performance and wine quality are influenced by various factors, two of the most important being the availability and quality of irrigation water. In relatively dry countries such as South Africa the conservation and effective use of water is of utmost importance. Expected increases in temperature and decreases in rainfall in the future due to climate change impacts highlights the importance of water conservation. This inspired investigations into possible alternative irrigation water sources and therefore the possibility of vineyard irrigation using winery wastewater is of utmost importance for the sustainability of the wine industry. Winery wastewater contains higher concentrations of certain elements other than water generally used for vineyard irrigation, the most important differences being Na and K levels. Furthermore, winery wastewater contains larger populations of microorganisms such as yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria, typical associated with wine production. If irrigation using winery wastewater affects the uptake of certain elements or alters grapevine water status, it may affect grapevine growth, juice and wine composition. Furthermore, if juice and wine composition is affected wine composition and sensorial quality may be affected. Cabernet Sauvignon/99R grapevines, growing in a sandy soil in the Breede River Valley, were subjected to eight irrigation treatments using augmented winery wastewater in addition to irrigation using raw river water as control. The study was carried out during the 2010/11 and 2011/12 seasons. The various wastewater irrigation treatments were made up by augmenting winery wastewater with raw river water to obtain a target chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration. In this study, the level of COD in the irrigation water is a direct indication of water quality, the two being indirectly proportional. The eight wastewater irrigation treatments ranged from 100 mg/L COD up to 3000 mg/L COD. The first objective of the study was to determine the effect of irrigation using augmented winery wastewater on grapevine response, with regards to vegetative growth, berry development and berry composition. The various wastewater irrigation treatments did not affect grapevine vegetative growth or reproductive growth, including yield, throughout berry development up to harvest. Berry sugar accumulation and evolution in acid concentrations were also not affected. An increase in berry juice pH was observed with an increase in the level of COD in the augmented winery wastewater only in the second season. The amount of elements, ions and heavy metals in juice was not affected by wastewater irrigation, indicating that there was no absorption by the grapevines. Berry skin thickness, colour and phenolic content as well as yield and its associated components were not affected by irrigation using augmented winery wastewater. The second objective of the study was to determine the effect of irrigation using augmented winery wastewater on wine microbial and chemical composition, fermentation performance and wine sensorial characteristics. The natural yeast and bacteria flora of juice was not affected by the various wastewater irrigation treatments. In addition, the ability of the inoculated yeast and lactic acid bacteria strains to conduct their respective fermentation processes were not affected. With the exception of total titratable acidity (TTA) and pH, irrigation using augmented winery wastewater did not affect wine chemical composition with regards to basic wine parameters as well as colour, phenolic and tannin composition. Similar to juice, phosphorus and selected ions were not affected. None of the measured wine sensorial characteristics were affected by irrigation using augmented winery wastewater. The third objective of the study was to investigate the effect of direct contact between berries and winery wastewater on wine sensorial characteristics. The study focussed on the transference of off-flavours from the wastewater into the wine and the occurrence of off-flavours as a response to contact with winery wastewater. Wine colour and general sensory wine descriptives were not affected by direct contact with winery wastewater. The presence of a winery wastewater-like off-odour and volatile acidity was, however, more detectable in wines made from berries that were in contact with the most concentrated wastewater. Therefore, it may be possible for off-odours to be transferred from the winery wastewater into the wines, or that off-odours are formed as a direct or indirect result of contact with winery wastewater. Under the given conditions, results obtained in this two seasons of the study suggest that irrigation using augmented winery wastewater does not affect grapevine performance or wine quality substantially. The major impact that was observed was an increase in wine pH and a decreasing trend in TTA. Both these parameters could be rectified by simply adding acid to the wines. Therefore, irrigation using augmented winery wastewater may be considered as a possible future alternative source for vineyard irrigation. It is, however, important to remember that some of the effects of wastewater irrigation may be cumulative and could possibly arise only after several years. Furthermore, different field conditions and cultivars may respond differently.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wingerd prestasie en wyngehalte word deur verskeie faktore beïnvloed waarvan twee van die belangrikste die beskikbaarheid en gehalte van besproeiingswater is. In relatiewe droë lande soos Suid Afrika is waterbesparing en die effektiewe benutting van water hulpbronne van uiterste belang. Die verwagte toename in temperatuur en afname in reënval in die toekoms as gevolg van klimaatsveranderinge plaasdieklem op op die belangrikheid van waterbesparing. Dit het navorsing om moontlike alternatiewe vorme van besproeiingswater te ontdek geïnspireer. Na aanleiding van hierdie faktore word daar toenemend gefokus op navorsing oor die moontlikheid om kelder afvalwater as alternatiewe bron van besproeiings water vir wingerde te benut. Kelder afvalwater bevat hoër konsentrasie van sekere elemente as water wat onder normale omstandighede gebruik word vir die besproeiing van wingerde, die belangrikste verskille was die vlakke van Na en K. Benewens die hoër konsentrasie van sekere elemente bevat kelder afvalwater ook groot populasies van mikroörganismes soos giste, melksuurbakterieë en asynsuurbakterieë, tipies geassosieerd met wynbereiding. Indien besproeiing met kelder afvalwater die opname van sekere elemente of die plant water status beϊnvloed, mag wingerd groei, sap en wyn samestelling beϊnvloed word. Daar benewens, indien die mikrobiese samestelling van die sap en wyn beϊnvloed word sal die samestelling en sensoriese gehalte van die wyn moontlik beϊnvloed word. Cabernet Sauvignon/99R wingerde, geleë in sanderige grond in die Breede Rivier Vallei, is onderwerp aan besproeiing met agt verskillende konsentrasies van verdunde kelder afvalwater, bykomend tot besproeiing met onbehandelde rivier water wat as kontrole gedien het. Hierdie studie is uitgevoer gedurende die 2010/11 en 2011/12 seisoene. Die teiken besproeiings konsentrasies is verkry deur kelder afvalwater met onbehandelde rivier water te verdun tot ‘n sekere chemiese suurstofbehoefte (CSB) konsentrasie bereik is. Die CSB is in hierdie studie ‘n direkte aanduiding van watergehalte, die twee was indirek eweredig tot mekaar. Die agt CSB konsentrasies waarteen die afvalwater besproei is wissel tussen 100 mg/L CSB en 3000 mg/L CSB. Die eerste doelwit van die studie was om te bepaal wat die effek van besproeiing met verdunde kelder afvalwater op wingerdprestasie, met spesifieke verwysing na vegetatiewe groei, korrelontwikkeling en korrelsamestelling is. Wingerd vegetatiewe en reproduktiewe groei, insluitende opbrengs, is op geen stadium tydens korrelontwikkeling tot en met oes beïnvloed nie. Die laai van suikers gedurende rypwording, sowel as verskuiwings in suurkonsentrasie, is nie deur besproeiing met kelder afvalwater beïnvloed nie. In die tweede seisoen is ‘n toename in sap pH waargeneem soos die CSB konsentrasie van die besproeiings water toegeneem het. Die element, ioon en swaar metaal samestelling van sap was nie beïnvloed deur besproeiing met afvalwater nie wat aandui dat daar geen opname was deur die wingerd nie. Die dikte, kleur en fenoliese samestelling van druifdoppe is ook nie beïnvloed nie. Die tweede doelwit van die studie was om te bepaal wat die effek van besproeiing met verdunde kelder afvalwater op wyn mikrobiese en chemiese samestelling, fermentasie effektiwiteit en wyn sensoriese eienskappe is. Die verskeie afvalwater besproeiings behandelings het geen effek op die natuurlike gis of bakterieë flora van die sap gehad nie. Die vermoë van die geïnokuleerde gis en melksuurbakterieë om hul afsonderlike fermentasie prosesse te voltooi is ook nie beïnvloed nie. Met die uitsondering van totale titreerbare suur (TTS) en pH, is die chemiese samestelling van wyne met betrekking tot basiese wyn parameters, kleur, fenole en tanniene nie beïnvloed nie. Soortgelyk aan sap is wyn fosfor en geselekteerde ioon samestelling nie geaffekteer nie. Die sensoriese karakteristieke was eenders vir wyne van alle behandelings. Die derde doelwit van die studie was om te bepaal wat die effek wat direkte kontak van kelder afvalwater met druiwekorrels op wyn sensoriese eienskappe het. Hierdie studie het gefokus op die oordrag van afgeure vanaf kelder afvalwater na die wyne sowel as die voorkoms van afgeure as ‘n reaksie op kontak met kelder afvalwater. Wyn kleur en algemene sensoriese eienskappe is nie geaffekteer deur kontak tussen druiwe en kelder afvalwater nie. Kelder afvalwater-geassosieerde afgeure en vlugtige suur was meer duidelik waarneembaar in wyne wat gemaak is van druiwe wat in kontak was met die meer gekonsentreerde afvalwater. Dit mag dus moontlik wees dat afgeure vanaf kelder afvalwater oorgedra word na wyne, of dat sekere afgeure gevorm word as ‘n direkte of indirekte reaksie op kontak met kelder afvalwater. Onder die gegewe toestande oor die twee jaar studie periode het resultate getoon dat besproeiing met verdunde kelder afvalwater nie wingerdprestasie en wyn gehalte aansienlik beïnvloed nie. Die grootste impak wat afvalwater besproeiing gehad het, was om ‘n toename in wyn pH en ‘n tendens tot afname in TTS te veroorsaak. Deur eenvoudig suur by die wyn te voeg kan albei hierdie probleme reg gestel word. Op grond van hierdie bevindings kan besproeiing met verdunde kelder afvalwater moontlik as toekomstige bron vir addisionele wingerdbesproeiing dien. Dit is egter belangrik om te onthou dat die effekte van besproeiing met kelder afvalwater mootlik kumulatief kan wees en dat probleme moontlik eers na etlike jare na vore kan kom. Ander kultivars en veldkondisies mag ook lei tot ander resultate.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71606
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