'n Onderrigleerstrategie om kritiese denke deur middel van geskiedenisonderrig te ontwikkel

Van Wyk, Andries Jacobus (1992-03)

Proefskrif (M. Ed.) -- Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 1992.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY: Man are continually being confronted with problems for which solutions have to be found. This study tries to show that if man wants to make a positive contribution to the development of his community and wants to effectively address problems, he must attempt to develop his full potential. In his search for solutions it is necessary that choices be made between new and alternate ideas and assumptions during which process his judgement and attitude towards issues will be tested. The research methodology followed in this work is mainly based on a literature study. The departure point for this study has been the hypothesis that a critical mental focus can help in the evaluation and judgement of issues. In the determination· of an operational definition of critical thought it is assumed in this study that the subject History can play an important role to help students, with the aid of specific methodologies and thought proficiencies, to develop the ability to evaluate historical facts. This could mean that the student learns to handle everyday problems through the application of these mental proficiencies and with a critical focus. For the creation of an educational learning strategy as first step towards the implementation of critical thought through the subject History, thought and learning are defined according to studies done in this field. The work done by Piaget was used as basis and because this study focus on the secondary school student, Piaget's definitions of concrete operational thought and formal operational thought was accentuated. In this process factors that specifically influence critical thought and the learning process has been highlighted as areas that the teacher must keep in mind if the development of critical thought is the aim. It has been emphasised that the teaching of History is, in many of facts. Critical that the cases, mainly done on the level of the transfer Should the teaching process have as goal thought development, it has the added benefit student not only memorises facts but has to think about them. This study tries to show that facts should have an utilisation value and that the teacher should use techniques such as class discussions, guided discussions and do-it-yourself activities to help with the development of critical thought. The proposed instructional learning strategy consists of three phases, that is planning, implementation end evaluation. The role of the teacher remains important in all three phases and aspects such as methods, questioning, class atmosphere, curriculum proficiencies and motivation are seen as essential subsections. To conclude: it seems from the literature consulted and from experience that the potential exists to develop critical thought efficiently through a focussed program in the subject History. Should an instructional learning strategy with the development of critical thought as goal be followed, history can take it's rightful place in the school curriculum.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die mens word voortdurend gekonfronteer met probleme waarvoor oplossings gevind moet word. Hierdie studie probeer aantoon dat die mens se denkpotensiaal ontwikkel moet word indien hy 'n positiewe bydrae tot die ontwikkeling van die gemeenskap wil lewer en probleme wil oplos. In die soeke na oplossings is dit nodig dat daar keuses gemaak moet word tussen nuwe en alternatiewe idees en in die proses sal sy oordeelsvermoe en houding teenoor 'n saak getoets word. Die navorsingsmetode wat in hierdie studie gevolg is, berus hoofsaaklik op 'n literatuurstudie waaruit die onderrigleerstrategie voortgespruit het. Daar word van die uitgangspunt uitgegaan dat 'n kritiese denkingesteldheid die mens kan help in die beoordeling en evaluering van 'n saak. In 'n bepaling van 'n operasionele definisie van kritiese denke word aanvaar dat die vak Geskiedenis 'n belangrike rol kan speel om die leerling, aan die hand van spesifieke werkwyses en denkvaardighede, te leer om Geskiedenisfeite te evalueer. Dit kan beteken dat die leerling leer om die alledaagse probleme te hanteer deur die toepassing van denkvaardighede en die uitleef van kritiese ingesteldheid. In die daarstel van 'n onderrigleerstrategie as eerste stap vir die implementering van kritiese denke deur die vak Geskiedenis, is denke en leer gedefinieer. Daar is gesteun op die werk van Piaget en omdat die studie gemik is op die sekondere skoolleerling is die denkvlakke konkreet-operasionele denke en formeel-operasionele denke, soos deur Piaget geformuleer, uitgelig. In die proses is faktore wat kritiese denke en ook die leerproses beinvloed geaksentueer as terreine wat die onderwyserin gedagte moet hou indien die ontwikkeling van kritiese denke die doelwit is. Die probleem is beklemtoon dat die onderrig van die vak in baie gevalle hoofsaaklik op die kennisvlak geskied. Indien kritiese denkontwikkeling as doelstelling onderrig word, hou dit onder andere die voordeel in dat die Ieerling nie net geheuewerk beoefen nie, maar denkend met die feite omgaan. Die studie probeer bepaal dat feite gebruikswaarde moet he en dat die onderwyser metodes soos klasgesprek, leergesprek en selfdoenaktiwiteite moet aanwend om kritiese denke te ontwikkel of bevorder. Die onderrigleerstrategie wat voorgestel word, bestaan uit drie fases naamlik beplanning, implementering en evaluering. In die fases bly die rol van die onderwyser belangrik en word metodes, vraagstelling, klimaatskepping, kurrikuleringsvaardighede en motivering as essensiele fasette beskou. Ten slotte blyk dit uit die geraadpleegde literatuur en ervaring dat die moontlikhede daar is om kritiese denkvaardighede deur 'n doelgerigte program in die vak Geskiedenis te ontwikkel. Indien 'n onderrigleerstrategie gevolg word waarin kritiese denke as doelstelling nagestreef word, kan die vak in 'n groter mate sy regmatige plek in die skoolkurrikulum inneem.

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