Die belewingswereld van oudleerlinge van skole vir serebraal gestremdes

Du Plessis, Jean Marais (1991-12)

Proefskrif (Ph. D.) -- Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 1991.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Cerebral Palsy, a disability with world-wide distribution, affects not only the afflicted, but also the community at large. To date, most research in this area has focused on babies, children and adolescents. It has, however, become apparent that the emphasis should shift to adult cerebral palsied people to ensure that the efficacy and applicability of the years of specialized education and therapy remain relevant. The purpose of this investigation was to build up a composite picture of the world, as experienced by past pupils of schools for the disabled in South Africa. The informants had minimum academic qualifications of Standard 8. In addition to a study of current literature in this field, a questionnaire was administered nationwide. This was followed by interviews with a representative sample of the respondents. The investigation disclosed that the severity of the disability did not necessarily influence the respondents' academic achievements nor their satisfaction with their quality of life. Many severely disabled people had attained exceptional achievements and perceived their lives as meaningful. Although informants' responses reflected positive influences which specialized schools have had on their development, certain educational aspects need reevaluation. To prevent over-protection and the development of unrealistic expectations, pupils from these schools need more exposure to the demands of the non-disabled world. Training in life skills as well as bridging between school and the adult world could promote less stressful adjustments. Psychological problems were evident in most of the respondents. Although they expressed their appreciation of the therapeutic and psychological services which they had experienced, problem areas were evident. Psychologists should be approachable, displaying genuine concern, their honesty and integrity being irreproachable. Guidance, which in some schools is neglected, should receive priority. Pupils should be thoroughly informed about their disabilities and should be exposed to existential questions during Guidance sessions. Although the informants were generally satisfied with their living conditions, a need for greater independence was expressed. Those living in their own homes were happier than those living in homes for the disabled, who experienced a lack of privacy and self determination which severely affected their quality of life. Cerebral palsied workers do not always attain the same productivity level as nondisabled people but they are disciplined and display good interpersonal relationships with their colleagues. Disability grants shoulds be conceded with circumspection and the practice of subsidised salaries should receive more attention. Social isolation was prevalent among the respondents, the unfulfilling relationships leading to anxiety and despondency. A lack of self-confidence on a social level was often the crux of the problem. It is vital that as scholars the disabled learn to process negative reactions from the community and also how to put non-disabled people at ease when in their presence. Society, in return, needs to be educated regarding disability. This investigation has motivated various suggestions with regard to the education, therapy and psychological guidance of cerebral palsied children.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Serebrale gestremdheid is 'n probleem van wereldwye omvang wat 'n uitwerking het, nie net op die gestremde self nie, maar op die hele gemeenskap. Die meeste van die navorsing op hierdie gebied is gebaseer op babas, kinders en adolessente van skoolgaande ouderdom. Meer aandag behoort aan volwasse serebraal gestremdes gegee te word, sodat die doeltreffendheid en toepaslikheid van jare se gespesialiseerde onderwys en terapie in oenskou gene em kan word. Die doel van hierdie ondersoek was om 'n beeld op te bou van die belewingswereld van serebraal gestremde oudleerlinge van skole vir gestremdes in die RSA wat 'n standerd 8- of hoer akademiese kwalifikasie behaal het. Benewens 'n literatuurstudie, is 'n landwye vraelysondersoek voltooi, wat opgevolg is deur onderhoude met 'n verteenwoordigende monster van die respondente. In hierdie ondersoek het dit aan die lig gekom dat die graad van gestremdhdd nie noodwendig die persoon se akademiese prestasie en tevredenheid met die kwaliteit van sy of haar lewe beinvloed nie. Verskeie erg gestremdes het besondere prestasies behaal en ervaar die lewe as sinvol. Hoeweldie positiewe bydrae van skole vir gestremdes in die wording van gestremde leerlinge duidelik blyk uit respondente se reaksies, behoort sekere aspekte van onderwys aan serebraal gestremdes heroorweeg te word. Om oorbeskerming en die ontwikkeling van onrealistiese verwagtinge te voorkom, het leerlinge aan die skole meer blootstelling aan die eise van die nie-gestremde we reId no dig. Opleiding in lewensvaardighede en oorbruggingskursusse tussen skool en die lewe' in die samelewing, kan latere aanpassing vergemaklik. Sielkundige probleme kom algemeen by serebraal gestremdes voor. Hoewel respondente waardering uitgespreek het vir die terapeutiese en sielkundige dienste, het hul egter ook op knelpunte gewys. Die sielkundige moet 'n toeganklike mens wees wat opregte belangstelling toon en wie se eerlikheid en integriteit bo verdenking staan. Voorligting, wat in sommige skole afskeep word, behoort 'n hoe prioriteit te geniet. Leerlinge behoort uitvoerig oor hul gestremdheid ingelig te word en eksistensiele vrae behoort ook in die voorligtingsituasie aangespreek te word. Hoewel serebraal gestremdes in die algemeen gelukkig is waar hul woon, is daar dikwels 'n begeerte na grater selfstandigheid. Die wat oar hul eie woonplekke beskik, is gelukkiger as inwoners van tehuise vir gestremdes. Laasgenoemdes ervaar 'n gebrek aan privaatheid en selfbeskikking wat hul belewing van menswaardigheid aantas. Nie alle serebraal gestremde werkers is tot dieselfde produksievermoe as niegestremdes in staat nie, maar hulle is gereelde werkers wat goed met hul kollegas klaarkom. Ongeskiktheidstoelae behoort met omsigtigheid toegestaan te word en die praktyk van loonsubsidies behoort meer ondersteuning te kry. Sosiale isolasie kom algemeen by serebraal gestremde oudleerlinge voor. Ontoereikende sosiale verhoudings lei tot spanning en neerslagtigheid. Die kern van die probleem is dikwels gebrekkige sosiale selfvertroue. Dis belangrik dat leerlinge in hul skooljare reeds leer om negatiewe reaksies uit die samelewing te hanteer en om nie-gestremdes in hul teenwoardigheid op hul gemak te stel. Terselfdertyd moet die samelewing opgevoed word ten opsigte van gestremdes. Hierdie ondersoek het aanleiding gegee tot verskeie aanbevelings met be trekking tot, onder andere, onderwys aan serebraal gestremdes, terapie, sielkundige hulpverlening en voorligting.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/69148
This item appears in the following collections: