Die Afrikaanse volkslied onder die bruinmense

Burden, Matilda (1991)
 

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 1991.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A song has to be accepted by the community, must form part of the oral tradition and be handed over from one generation to the next, before it can be called a folk song. In the process of oral tradition, variants usually develop. A folk song is therefore never complete the moment it is created, but is formed gradually through a process of changes. The Afrikaans folk song sung by the coloured people has the same characteristics as the folk song in general. The fact that oral tradition is the major way of spreading songs, is evident from the many variants that occur and from the examples of transformation of words and melody ("Umsingen"and "Zersingen"). Simplicity, the use of the major key and the avoidance of modulation are prominent characteristics. Suggestiveness and coarse language are fairly common. Melismata are very rare and usually occur in songs which probably have their origin in old Afrikaans records. Most of the songs collected amongst coloured children are used to accompany games. The children seldom sing without playing or play without singing. Most variants are found amongst children's songs. Dancing songs are without a doubt the most popular amongst the songs of adults. The form of the stanzas is very simple and usually the songs consist of many stanzas. A small percentage of the songs collected, more or less 5%, presumably originate from old Afrikaans grammophone records. Most of these songs have been transformed by popular usage and even amongst them variants have been found. The main themes of this group of songs are love, parting, grief and death. Picnic songs, work songs, war songs and drinking songs have been found. Humoristic and mocking songs contribute to the entertainment value of the folk song and are also found amongst the coloured people. Because there is so much interaction between sacred songs and secular songs, especially where the melodies are concerned, the two groups cannot always be separated from each other. The sacred songs of the coloured people are mostly of the "refrain"-type. When a group of coloured people perform the sacred songs, they usually harmonise spontaneously and most beautifully. The fact that so much has been said and written on the subject of the folk song, and that even in recent years substantial research projects have been carried out, is proof enough that the folk song has not yet died out. The Afrikaans folk song features strongly amongst coloured people, though noticeably influenced by the English language, modern technology and urbanisation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Volkslied is 'n lied wat deur die gemeenskap aanvaar is, mondelings versprei word en op dieselfde wyse van geslag tot geslag oorgelewer word en waarvan daar in die prosesse variante ontstaan. 'n Volkslied is dus nie voltooi die oomblik dat die eerste vorm geskep is nie, maar word deur 'n langsame proses geleidelik gevorm en omvorm. Die Afrikaanse volkslied wat deur die bruinmense gesing word, toon dieselfde kenmerke as die volkslied in die algemeen. Daar is tekens van mondelinge oorlewering wat veral weerspieel word deur die baie variante wat aangetref word, sowel as talle voorbeelde van verbrokkeling en ver~ vorming ("Umsingen" en "Zerzingen"). Eenvoud in woord en melodie is opvallend. Die majeurtoonaard, met vermyding van modulasie, kom feitlik deurgaans voor. Suggestiwiteit en growwe taal is redelik algemeen. Melismes kom selde voor en dan meestal by liedere wat waarskynlik van ou Afrikaanse plate kom. By die opnames onder bruin kinders is gevind dat die oorgrote meerderheid liedere wat hulle sing, een of ander vorm van spel begelei. Hulle sing selde sonder om te speel, en hulle speel selde sonder om te sing. Die meeste variante van liedere word ook by die kinders aangetref. By die liedere van volwassenes is die danslied ongetwyfeld die gewildste. Die meeste daarvan bestaan uit kort, eenvoudige strofes met baie strofes in een lied. 'n Klein persentasie van die liedere wat versamel is, ongeveer 5%, is vermoedelik van ou Afrikaanse grammofoonplate afkomstig. Die meeste daarvan het baie vervorm in die volksmond en selfs daarvan is variante aangetref. Die temas van hierdie groep liedere handel hoofsaaklik oor die liefde, afskeid, hartseer en die dood. Voorbeelde van piekniek-, arbeids- en oorlogsliedere, sowel as enkele drinkliedere en doprympies is aangetref. Die humoristiese lied en spotlied dra by tot die vermaaklikhiedsfunksie van die volkslied en kom ook by die bruinmense voor. Die gewyde of geestelike lied kan nie altyd streng van die wereldlike lied geskei word nie. Daar is te veel wisselwerking tussen die twee groepe, veral wat wysies betref. Die gewyde liedere wat by die bruinmense,aangetref is, is meestal van die sogenaamde "koortjie"-tipe. 'n Kenmerk van hulle gewyde sang is dat wanneer dit deur 'n groep gesing word, dit altyd meerstemmig is met pragtige harmoniee wat op natuurlike wyse gedoen word. Die feit dat daar al so baie oor die volkslied geskryf is en selfs onlangs nog omvatteride studies daaroor die lig gesien het, is bewys dat die volklied nog nie uitgesterf het nie. Daar is bewys dat die Afrikaanse volkslied onder die bruinmense baie sterk staan, hoewel Engelse invloed duidelik merkbaar is en tekens van moderne ontwikkeling en verstedeliking onmiskenbaar waargeneem kanword.

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