A multi-objective approach to incorporate indirect costs into optimisation models of waterborne sewer systems

Bester, Albertus J. (2011-03)

Thesis (MScEng (Civil Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Waterborne sewage system design and expansion objectives are often focused on minimising initial investment while increasing system capacity and meeting hydraulic requirements. Although these objectives make good sense in the short term, the solutions obtained might not represent the optimal cost-effective solution to the complete useful life of the system. Maintenance and operation of any system can have a significant impact on the life-cycle cost. The costing process needs to be better understood, which include maintenance and operation criteria in the design of a sewer system. Together with increasing public awareness regarding global warming and environmental degradation, environmental impact, or carbon cost, is also an important factor in decisionmaking for municipal authorities. This results in a multiplicity of different objectives, which can complicate the decisions faced by waterborne sewage utilities. Human settlement and migration is seen as the starting point of expansion problems. An investigation was conducted into the current growth prediction models for municipal areas in order to determine their impact on future planning and to assess similarities between the models available. This information was used as a platform to develop a new method incorporating indirect costs into models for planning waterborne sewage systems. The need to balance competing objectives such as minimum cost, optimal reliability, and minimum environmental impact was identified. Different models were developed to define the necessary criteria, thus minimising initial investment, operating cost and environmental impact, while meeting hydraulic constraints. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) was applied to certain waterborne sewage system (WSS) scenarios that simulated the evolutionary processes of genetic selection, crossover, and mutation to find a number of suitable solutions that balance all of the given objectives. Stakeholders could in future apply optimisation results derived in this thesis in the decision making process to find a solution that best fits their concerns and priorities. Different models for each of the above-mentioned objectives were installed into a multi-objective NSGA and applied to a hypothetical baseline sewer system problem. The results show that the triple-objective optimisation approach supplies the best solution to the problem. This approach is currently not applied in practice due to its inherent complexities. However, in the future this approach may become the norm.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Spoelafvoering rioolstelsel ontwerp en uitbreiding doelwitte is dikwels gefokus op die vermindering van aanvanklike belegging, terwyl dit die verhoging van stelsel kapasiteit insluit en ook voldoen aan hidrouliese vereistes. Alhoewel hierdie doelwitte goeie sin maak in die kort termyn, sal die oplossings verkry dikwels nie die optimale koste-effektiewe oplossing van die volledige nuttige lewensduur van die stelsel verteenwoordig nie. Bedryf en instandhouding van 'n stelsel kan 'n beduidende impak op die lewensiklus-koste hê, en die kostebepalings proses moet beter verstaan word en die nodige kriteria ingesluit word in die ontwerp van 'n rioolstelsel. Saam met 'n toenemende openbare bewustheid oor aardverwarming en die agteruitgang van die omgewing, is omgewingsimpak, of koolstof koste, 'n belangrike faktor in besluitneming vir munisipale owerhede. As gevolg hiervan, kan die diversiteit van die verskillende doelwitte die besluite wat munisipale besluitnemers in die gesig staar verder bemoeilik. Menslike vestiging en migrasie is gesien as die beginpunt van die uitbreiding probleem. 'n Ondersoek na die huidige groeivoorspelling modelle vir munisipale gebiede is van stapel gestuur om hul impak op die toekomstige beplanning te bepaal, en ook om die ooreenkomstes tussen die modelle wat beskikbaar is te asesseer. Hierdie inligting is gebruik as 'n platform om ‘n nuwe metode te ontwikkel wat indirekte kostes inkorporeer in die modelle vir die beplanning van spoelafvoer rioolstelsels. Die behoefte is geïdentifiseer om meedingende doelwitte soos minimale aanvanklike koste, optimale betroubaarheid en minimum invloed op die omgewing te balanseer. Verskillende modelle is ontwikkel om die bogenoemde kriteria te definiëer, in die strewe na die minimaliseering van aanvanklike belegging, bedryfskoste en omgewingsimpak, terwyl onderhewig aan hidrouliese beperkinge. ‘n Nie-gedomineerde sorteering genetiese algoritme (NSGA-II), istoegepas op sekere spoelafvoering rioolstelsel moontlikhede wat gesimuleerde evolusionêre prosesse van genetiese seleksie, oorplasing, en mutasie gebruik om 'n aantal gepaste oplossings te balanseer met inagname van al die gegewe doelwitte. Belanghebbendes kan in die toekoms gebruik maak van die resultate afgelei in hierdie tesis in besluitnemings prosesse om die bes-passende oplossing vir hul bekommernisse en prioriteite te vind. Verskillende modelle vir elk van die bogenoemde doelwitte is geïnstalleer in die nie-gedomineerde sorteering genetiese algoritme en toegepas op 'n hipotetiese basislyn rioolstelsel probleem. Die resultate toon dat die drie-objektief optimalisering benadering die beste oplossing vir die probleem lewer. Hierdie benadering word tans nie in die praktyk toegepas nie, as gevolg van sy inherente kompleksiteite. Desnieteenstaande, kan hierdie benadering in die toekoms die norm word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6824
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