Transformation of agricultural and undeveloped land in the Boland region of the Western Cape

Niemand, Bernard (Barend Jakobus Petrus) (2011-03)

Thesis (MA (Geography and Environmental Studies))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Land for agricultural development gets scarcer as more and more agricultural land is being transformed by non-agricultural uses. The increased agricultural land use change in the Western Cape Province results in transformation, fragmentation and loss of productive agricultural land. With the A2 planning area of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning (DEADP), in the Boland region of the Western Cape, as its study area, this study investigates the role of legislative control measures on changes of land use from agriculture to a different form of development, by analysing the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) applications for the change of agricultural land use and agriculture applications for the conversion of undeveloped land for the period 1 January 1998 to 3 July 2006. The study examines the role that the relevant legislation plays in agricultural land use control; considers the nature, extent and reasons for agricultural land use change in the study area (under the Environment Conservation Act (Act 73 of 1989) (ECA)); determines the impacts associated with the transformation of agricultural land use in the study area by assessing transformation of undeveloped land applications (captured under the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (Act 43 of 1983) (CARA)); and measures the amount of agricultural land potentially lost to development through EIA change of land use applications (according to the DEADP database) opposed to the amount of agricultural land potentially gained through conversion of undeveloped land (according to the DoA database). Two databases were created, based on variables obtained from EIA change of agricultural land use applications authorised by DEADP [DEADP’s database] and conversion of undeveloped land for agricultural use, authorised by the Department of Agriculture (DoA)[DoA’s database]. The variables used to create DEADP’s database are the applicant, property owner, type of property, development function, year of authorisation, municipality, town, size of property, permanent and temporary jobs created, percentage of property developed, footprint of development, existing land use and unique source. The variables used to create DoA’s database are the year of authorisation, new and existing land use, year of authorisation, municipal area, property owner, percentage of property converted and footprint of development. The variables in the two databases are analysed using cross tabulations, with the variables measured against each other using pivot tables. The final tables are investigated through interpretation of the results and making recommendations for better management and planning in the future, based on relevant literature. The main findings are that DEADP gave authorisation for 416 agricultural land use change developments between 1 January 1998 and 3 July 2006, resulting in 2855 hectares of agricultural land potentially being developed. It was also found that DoA gave approval for 118 undeveloped land conversion applications, converting a total of 2589 hectares for agricultural purposes. The findings also revealed that 1707ha of this undeveloped land were covered with indigenous vegetation, while only 299ha were covered with alien vegetation. The challenge is to use valuable agricultural land optimally and sustainably for agricultural purposes. Non-agricultural developments should be kept within the urban edge and away from valuable agricultural land. If such development must take place on agricultural land, it must be done on the poorest soils and should not jeopardise agricultural activities. Keywords: land use change, undeveloped land, applicant, property owner, type of property, development function, year of authorisation, municipality, town, size of property, permanent jobs, temporary jobs, percentage of property developed, footprint of development, existing land use, new land use and unique source.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Grond vir landbou ontwikkeling word al hoe skaarser namate meer en meer landbougrond omskep word vir ander grondgebruike. Die gevolg is dat meer landbougrond in die Wes-Kaap omskep word vir ander ontwikkelingsdoeleindes, wat lei tot transformasie, fragmentering en verlies van produktiewe landbougrond. Met die A2 beplanningsgebied van die Departement van Omgewingsake en Ontwikkelingsbeplanning (DOeOB), wat geleë is in die Boland streek van die Wes-Kaap, as studiegebied, ondersoek hierdie studie die rol van wetgewende beheermatreëls op grondgebruiksverandering vir die periode 1 Januarie 1998 tot 3 Julie 2006, deur Omgewingsimpakbepalings (OIB) aansoeke wat ‘n verandering van landbougrondgebruik insluit, asook landbou aansoeke wat die omskepping van onontwikkelde grond insluit, te ontleed. Die studie ondersoek die rol wat relevante wetgewing in landbougrondgebruikskontrole speel; analiseer die aard, omvang en redes vir landbougrondgebruiksverandering in die studiegebied soos voor aansoek gedoen in terme van die Wet op Omgewingsbewaring (Wet 73 van 1989); die impakte wat geassosieer word met transformasie van landbougrond deur verandering van landbougrondgebruik soos voor aansoek gedoen in terme van die Wet op Bewaring van Landbouhulpbronne (Wet 43 van 1983); en vergelyk die hoeveelheid landbougrond wat potensieel omskep is vir ontwikkeling deur middel van OIB verandering van grondgebruik aansoeke (volgens DOeOB databasis) teenoor die hoeveelheid nuwe landbou grond wat potensieel geskep is deur onontwikkelde grond te omskep vir landbou (volgens DvL databasis). Twee databasisse is geskep, gebaseer op veranderlikes wat verkry is uit OIB-aansoeke wat ‘n verandering van landbougrondgebruik ingesluit het en deur DOeOB goedgekeur is [DOeOB databasis] en aansoeke wat ‘n verandering van onontwikkelde grond vir landboudoeleindes insluit, goedgekeur deur die Departement van Landbou (DvL) [DvL databasis]. Die veranderlikes in die DOeOB databasis te skep sluit die volgende in: aansoeker, eienaar, tipe eiendom, tipe ontwikkeling, jaar van goedkeuring, munisipale area, dorp, groote van eiendom, permanente en tydelike werksgeleenthede geskep, proporsie van grond ontwikkel, voetspoor van ontwikkeling, bestaande grondgebruik, nuwe grondgebruik en unieke bron. Die veranderlikes in die DvL databas is: jaar van goedkeuring, nuwe en bestaande grondgebruik, munisipale area, dorp, grondeienaar, proporsie van grond ontwikkel en voetspoor van ontwikkeling. Die veranderlikes in die twee databasisse is ontleed deur kruistabelle. Die finale tabelle word geanaliseer deur die resultate te interpreteer en voorstelle te maak vir beter bestuur en beplanning in die toekoms, gebaseerd op relevante literatuur. Die hoof resultate van die studie toon dat DOeOB goedkeuring gegee het vir 416 landbougrondgebruiksveranderingontwikkelings tussen 1 Januarie 1998 en 3 Julie 2006, wat moontlik veroorsaak het dat 2855 hektaar landbougrond ontwikkel is. Die resultate dui ook dat DvL goedkeuring uitgereik het vir 118 ontwikkeling van onontwikkelde grond aansoeke, wat ’n totaal van 2589 hektaar grond potensieel omskep het vir landbou doeleindes. Die bevindinge bevestig ook dat 1707 hektaar van die onontwikkelde grond bedek was met inheemse plantegroei, terwyl slegs 299 hekaar bedek was met uitheemse plantegroei. Die uitdaging vir die toekoms is om vrugbare landbougrond optimaal en volhoubaar te gebruik vir landbou. Nie-landbou ontwikkelings moet binne die stedelike grens geskied, weg van vrugbare landbougrond. Indien ontwikkeling op landbougrond plaasvind, moet dit op lae-potensiaal landbou grond geskied en geensins landbou aktiwiteite benadeel nie. Kernwoorde: grondgebruiksverandering, onontwikkelde grond, aansoeker, eiendoms eienaar, tipe eiendom, tipe ontwikkeling, jaar van goedkeuring, munisipale area, dorp, groote van eiendom, permanente werksgeleenthede, tydeike werksgeleenthede geskep, persentasie van grond ontwikkel, voetspoor van ontwikkeling, bestaande grondgebruik, nuwe grond gebruik en unieke bron.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6776
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