Design, implementation & analysis of a low-cost, portable, medical measurement system through computer vision

Van der Westhuizen, Gareth (2011-03)

Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The In the Physiotherapy Division of the Faculty of Health Sciences on the Tygerberg Hospital Campus of the University of Stellenbosch, the challenge arose to develop a portable, affordable and yet accurate 3D measurement machine for the assessment of posture in school children in their classroom environment. Currently Division already uses a state-of-the-art VICON commercial medical measuring machine to measure human posture in 3D in their physiotherapy clinic, but the system is not portable and is too expensive to cart around to different places for testing. To respond to this challenge, this Master’s thesis designed and analyzed a machine and its supporting system through both research on stereo-vision methodologies and empirical appraisal in the field. In the development process, the research was required to overcome the limitations posed by small image resolutions and lens distortions that are typical of cheap cameras. The academic challenge lay in the development of an error prediction model through Jacobian derivation and Error Propagation Law, to predict uncertainties of angular measurement calculated by the system. The research culminated in a system that is comparable in accuracy to the VICON within 3mm, and that has 1.5mm absolute accuracy within its own system for a measurement volume radius of 2.5 m. As such, the developed error model is an exact predictor of the angular error to within 0.02° of arc. These results, for both system accuracy and the error model, exceed the expectations on the basis of the initial challenge of the system. The development of the machine was successful in providing a prototype tool that is suitable for commercial development for use by physiotherapists in human posture measurement and assessment. In its current incarnation, the machine will also serve the Engineering Faculty as the most fundamental form of a three-dimensional measuring apparatus using only basic theories and algorithms of stereo-vision, thereby providing a basic experimental platform from which further scientific research on the theory and application of computer vision can be conducted.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Fisioterapie Afdeling van die Fakulteit Gesondheidswetenskappe op die Tygerberg kampus van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch gebruik ’n allernuutste VICON kommersiële mediese meettoestel om menslike postuur in drie dimensies te meet. Vanuit hierdie Afdeling het die uitdaging ontstaan om ’n draagbare, bekostigbare, maar tog akkurate, drie-dimensionele meetapparaat geskik vir die meet van die postuur van skoolkinders in die klaskamer te ontwikkel. In aanvaarding van hierdie uitdaging, het hierdie Magistertesis ’n toestel en ondersteuningstels ontwerp en ontleed deur beide navorsing in stereo-visie metodiek en terplaatse beoordeling. In die ontwikkelingsproses moes die navorsing die beperkings wat deur klein-beeld resolusie en lens-distorsie (tipies van goedkoop kameras) meegebring word, oorkom. Die akademiese uitdaging lê in die ontwikkeling van ’n voorspellende foutmodel deur van die Jacobianse-afleiding en die Fout Propageringswet gebruik te maak om onsekerheid van hoeksberekening deur die stelsel te voorspel. Die navorsing het gelei tot ’n stelsel wat binne 3mm vergelykbaar is in akkuraatheid met dié van die VICON en ook 1.5mm absolute interne akkuraatheid het in ’n meet-volume radius van 2.5m radius. Die ontwikkelde foutmodel is dus ’n presiese voorspeller van hoekfout tot binne 0.02° van boog. Die resultate met betrekking tot beide die akkuraatheid en die foutmodel het die oorspronklike verwagtinge van die uitdaging oortref. Die ontwikkeling was suksesvol in die skep van ’n prototipe-toestel geskik vir kommersiële ontwikkeling, vir gebruik deur fisioterapeute in die meting en evaluering van menslike postuur. Die stelsel is in sy fundamentele vorm, deur die gebruik van slegs basiese teorieë en algoritmes van stereo-visie, funksioneer as ’n drie-dimensionele meetapparaat. In die fundamentele vorm sal die stelsel die Ingenieursfakulteit dien as ’n basiese eksperimentele platform waarop verdere wetenskaplike navorsing in die teorie en toepassing van rekenaar-visie gedoen kan word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6764
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