Kooperatiewe leer as 'n aspek van kleingroepwerk in die primere skool

Nel, Gerrit Oosthuizen (1990)

Thesis (MEd)--Stellenbosch University, 1990.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Small group work is a complex educational method which requires of the teacher not only a thorough knowledge of group work methods and group dynamic processes, but also thorough advance planning and organising before its implementation. Before the teacher implements small group 'Work in his class-room, he should formulate clear aims and objectives to serve as guideline for group activities. During small group work distinctive activities are undertaken and to increase the success of these activities, the teacher will have to create a positive climate which promotes the teaching and learning process. As with the creation of climate, the composition of the group is a variable which can be controlled by the teacher. The correct group composition will not only lead to more effective group functioning, but will also contribute to a healthy esprit de corps. Small group work implies a dramatic shift in emphasis in respect of the traditional roles of teacher and pupil. The role of the pupil (learner) changes from that of a passive listener to that of an active participant and discussion partner in the teaching and learning process. The role of the teacher who has been regarded as almost the only source and transmitter of knowledge, changes to that of a facilitator who leads and motivates the pupil to become an enquirer-learner. To be able to participate effectively in small group activities requires certain skills of pupils. Two skills, namely communication and problemsolving, which should be taught to the pupils purposefully and in a structured way, are described in this study. The success of small group work is to a large extent determined by these two skills. Co-operative learning is an educational technique which involves the pupil in becoming co-responsible for his own teaching and lea~ning process. Cooperative learning is described as an aspect of small group work where heterogeneous groups of approximately five members each, function interdependently of one another in order to attain a group aim. Co-operative learning techniques are aimed at eliminating, to a large extent, the passivity and isolation which may occur during ordinary group w0rk, as each group member is actively involved in the learning process. Co-operative learning techniques is also aimed at developing the pupil as a whole because components such as communication development, problem solving, socialising, conflict handling and leadership development are all involved. In this way the pupil may be better prepared to take his place in a complex society which is constantly making higher demands. The application of co-operative learning techniques in small group context may also offer a solution to the problems of combined and ever growing classes at present experienced in education.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kleingroepwerk is 'n komplekse onderrigmetode wat vereis dat die leerkrag nie aIleen oor deeglike kennis van groepwerkmetodes en groepdinamiese prosesse moet beskik nie, maar ook deeglik moet beplan en organiseer voordat dit gelmplementeer kan word. Voordat die leerkrag kleingroepwerk in sy klaskamer implementeer, moet hy eers duidelike doelstellings en doelwitte formuleer wat groepaktiwiteite kan rig. Tydens kleingroepwerk word eiesoortige aktiwiteite beoefen en om die sukses van hierdie aktiwiteite te verhoog, word die leerkrag genoop om 'n aangename positiewe klimaat te skep wat bevorderlik is vir die onderrig en leerproses. Soos klimaatskepping is groepsamestelling 'n veranderlike wat deur die leerkrag beheer kan word. Die korrekte groepsamestelling lei nie aIleen tot meer effektiewe groepfunksionering nie, maar kan ook bydra tot 'n gesonde groepgees. Kleingroepwerk impliseer 'n dramatiese klemverskuiwing ten opsigte van die tradisionele rolle van leerkrag en leerling. Die rol van die leerling (leerder) verander vanaf passiewe luisteraar na aktiewe deelnemer en medegespreksvennoot in die onderrig-en-leerproses. Die leerkrag wat feitlik as die enigste kennisbron en kennisoordraer beskou word, se rol verander nou na fasiliteerder wat eerder die leerling lei en motiveer om ondersoekendlerend op te tree. Om effektief aan kleingroepaktiwiteite deel te neem, vereis dat leerlinge oor sekere vaardighede moet beskik. In hierdie studie word twee vaardighede, naamlik kommunikasie en probleemoplossing beskryf wat doelbewus en gestruktureerd aan leerlinge geleer en ingeoefen moet word. Die sukses van kleingroepwerk word in 'n groot mate deur hierdie twee vaardighede bepaal. Kooperatiewe leer is 'n onderrigtegniek wat die leerling betrek om mede-verantwoordelikheid vir sy eie onderrig-en-leerproses te aanvaar. Kooperatiewe leer word beskryf as 'n aspek van kleingroepwerk waar heterogene groepe van ongeveer vyf lede elk interafhanklik van mekaar funksioneer ten einde dip. groepdoel te bereik. Kooperatiewe Ieertegnieke is oaaro: gemik om passiwiteit en isolasie w,at tydens gewone groepwerk mag voorkom in 'n groot mate te elimineer aangesien elke groeplid aktief by die leerproses betrek word. Kooperatiewe leertegnieke het ook ten doel om die leerling in sy totaliteit te laat ontwikkel aangesien komponente soos kommunikasie-ontwikkeling, probleemoplossing, sosialisering, konflikhantering en leierskapontwikkeling ter sprake kom. Sodoende kan die leerling beter voorberei word om sy plek in 'n komplekse samelewing wat steeds hoer eise stel, vol te staan. Die toepassing van kooperatiewe leertegnieke binne kleingroepverband bied ook moontlik 'n oplossing vir probleme van gekombineerde en groterwordende klasse wat tans in die onderwys ervaar word.

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