Inside-pipe heat transfer coefficient characterisation of a one third height scale model of a natural circulation loop suitable for a reactor cavity cooling system of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor

Sittmann, Ilse (2011-03)

Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The feasibility of a closed loop thermosyphon for the Reactor Cavity Cooling System of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor has been the subject of many research projects. Difficulties identified by previous studies include the hypothetical inaccuracies of heat transfer coefficient correlations available in literature. The aim of the research presented here is to develop inside-pipe heat transfer correlations that are specific to the current design of the RCCS. In order to achieve this, a literature review is performed which identifies reactors which employ closed loop thermosyphons and natural circulation. The literature review also explains the general one-dimensional two-fluid conservation equations that form the basis for numerical modelling of natural circulation loops. The literature review lastly discusses available heat transfer coefficient correlations with the aim of identifying over which ranges and under which circumstances these correlations are considered accurate. The review includes correlations commonly used in natural circulation modelling in the nuclear industry in aims of identifying correlations applicable to the modelling of the proposed RCCS. One of the objectives of this project is to design and build a one-third-height-scale model of the RCCS. Shortcomings of previous experimental models were assessed and, as far as possible, compensated for in the design of the model. Copper piping is used, eliminating material and surface property uncertainties. Several sight glasses are incorporated in the model, allowing for the visual identification of two-phase flow regimes. An orifice plate is used allowing for bidirectional flow measurement. The orifice plate, thermocouples and pipe-in-pipe heat exchangers are calibrated in-situ to minimize experimental error and aid repeatability. Twelve experiments are performed with data logging occurring every ten seconds. The results presented here are limited to selected single and two-phase flow operating mode results. Error analyses and repeatability of experimental measurements for single and two-phase operating modes as well as cooling water mass flow rates are performed, to show repeatability of experimental results. These results are used to mathematically determine the experimental inside-pipe heat transfer coefficients for both the evaporator and condenser sections. Trends in the heat transfer coefficient profiles are identified and the general behaviour of the profiles is thoroughly explained. The RCCS is modelled as a one-dimensional system. Correlations for the friction factor, heat transfer coefficient, void fraction and two-phase frictional multiplier are identified. The theoretical heat transfer coefficients are calculated using the mathematical model and correlations identified in the literature review. Fluid parameters are evaluated using experimentally determined temperatures and mass flow rates. The resulting heat transfer coefficient profiles are compared to experimentally determined profiles, to confirm the hypothesis that existing correlations do not accurately predict the inside-pipe heat transfer coefficients. The experimentally determined coefficients are correlated to 99% confidence intervals. These generated correlations, along with identified and established twophase heat transfer coefficient correlations, are used in a mathematical model to generate theoretical coefficient profiles. These are compared to the experimentally determined coefficients to show prediction accuracy.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die haalbaarheid van ‘n natuurlike sirkulasie geslote lus vir die Reaktor Holte Verkoeling Stelsel (RHVS) van die Korrelbed Modulêre Kern-Reaktor (KMKR) is die onderwerp van talle navorsings projekte. Probleme geïdentifiseer in vorige studies sluit in die hipotetiese onakkuraatheid van hitte-oordrag koëffisiënt korrelasies beskikbaar in literatuur. Die doel van die navorsing aangebied is om binne-pyp hitte-oordrag koëffisiënt korrelasies te ontwikkel spesifiek vir die huidige ontwerp van die RHVS. Ten einde dit te bereik, word ‘n literatuurstudie uitgevoer wat kern-reaktors identifiseer wat gebruik maak van natuurlike sirkulasie lusse. Die literatuurstudie verduidelik ook die algemene een-dimensionele twee-vloeistof behoud vergelykings wat die basis vorm vir numeriese modellering van natuurlike sirkulasie lusse. Die literatuurstudie bespreek laastens beskikbare hitte-oordrag koëffisiënt korrelasies met die doel om te identifiseer vir welke massavloei tempo waardes en onder watter omstandighede hierdie korrelasies as korrek beskou is. Die ontleding sluit korrelasies in wat algemeen gebruik word in die modellering van natuurlike sirkulasie in die kern industrie met die hoop om korrelasies vir gebruik in die modellering van die voorgestelde RHVS te identifiseer. Een van die doelwitte van die projek is om ‘n een-derde-hoogte-skaal model van die RHVS te ontwerp en te bou. Tekortkominge van vorige eksperimentele modelle is geidentifiseer en, so ver as moonlik, voor vergoed in die ontwerp van die model. Koper pype word gebruik wat die onsekerhede van materiaal en opperkvlak eindomme voorkom. Verkseie deursigtige polikarbonaat segmente is ingesluit wat visuele identifikasie van twee-fase vloei regimes toelaat. ‘n Opening plaat word gebruik om voorwaartse en terugwaartse vloeimeting toe te laat. Die opening plaat, termokoppels en hitte uitruilers is gekalibreer in plek om eksperimentele foute te verminder en om herhaalbaarheid te verseker. Twaalf eksperimente word uitgevoer en data word elke tien sekondes aangeteken. Die resultate wat hier aangebied word, is beperk tot geselekteerde enkel- en tweefase vloei meganismes van werking. Fout ontleding en herhaalbaarheid van eksperimentele metings, om die herhaalbaarheid van eksperimentele resultate te toon. Hierdie is gebruik om wiskundig te bepaal wat die eksperimentele binne-pyp hitte-oordrag koëffisiënte is vir beide die verdamper en kondenseerder afdelings. Tendense in die hitte-oordrag koëffisiënt profiele word geïdentifiseer en die algemene gedrag van die profiles is deeglik verduidelik. Die RHVS is gemodelleer as 'n een-dimensionele stelsel. Korrelasies vir die wrywing faktor, hitte-oordrag koëffisiënte, leegte-breuk en twee-fase wrywings vermenigvuldiger word geïdentifiseer. Die teoretiese hitte-oordrag koëffisiënte word bereken deur middle van die wiskundige model en korrelasies wat in literatuur geidentifiseer is. Vloeistof parameters is geëvalueer met eksperimenteel bepaalde temperature en massa-vloei tempos. Die gevolglike hitte-oordrag koëffisiënt profiles is vergelyk met eksperimentele profiele om die hipotese dat die bestaande korrelasies nie die binne-pyp hitte-oordrag koëffisiënte akkuraat voorspel nie, te bevestig. Die eksperimenteel bepaalde koëffisiënte is gekorreleer en die gegenereerde korrelasies, saam met geïdentifiseerde twee-fase hitte-oordrag koëffisiënt korrelasies, word gebruik in 'n wiskundige model om teoretiese koëffisiënt profiele te genereer. Dit word dan vergelyk met die eksperimenteel bepaalde hitteoordrag koëffisiënte om die akkuraatheid van voorspelling te toon. Tekortkominge in die teoretiese en eksperimentele model word geïdentifiseer en aanbevelings gemaak om hulle aan te spreek in die toekoms.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6708
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