Structure of the Cape Fold Belt in the Ceres Syntaxis

De Beer, C. H (1989-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 1989.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Ceres Syntaxis comprises that part of the Cape Fold Belt Syntaxis that lies north of the Worcester Fault. Most of the area consists of folded Cape Supergroup (primarily Witteberg Group) rocks. Fold styles of all fold trends are essentially the same. However, different multilayer rheologies led to the development of either sinusoidal or kink-like fold geometries in different parts of the cover sequence. The character of Witteberg sediments led to the development of large megakink folds and peculiar fold zones in this part of the sequence. Fold trends in the Ceres Syntaxis vary between NW-SE, NE-SW and E-W. The southern part of the area is dominated by the NE-SW trend, with the NW-SE trend being only important in the west. Interference between these two trends only exists in the Witteberg Group, where it occurs as crossing linear fold zones and conjugate, intersecting kink folds . Cross-folding relationships in the north-eastern part of the Ceres Syntaxis indicate that the area had been affected by two contemporaneous, orthogonally opposed compressions that worked simultaneously in different parts of the multilayer. Differences in the magnitude of strain, or in the local timing of fold initiation, produced local refolding or transecting relationships. The microfabric of Witteberg sandstones suggests deformation under conditions of low temperature and pressure, as well as low strain rates. Some microfabrics also indicate that substantial buckle shortening occurred while the Middle and Upper Witteberg beds were still unlithified. Isotopic dating of Cedarberg shale from both main trends did not yield unequivocal results, mainly due to the deformatio~al intensity. The positioning of the Cape low Fold Belt Syntaxis was strongly influenced by basement tectonic grain and basin floor relief. The NW and NE fold trends formed on a heterogeneous basement that resolved the stress configuration into components which external . acted simultaneously towards the north-west and north-east. Ecca and Beaufort Group sedimentation patterns in the western Karoo corroborate the above findings.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Ceres-sintaks beslaan daardie deel van die sintaks van die Kaapse Plooigordel wat noord van die Worcesterverskuiwing Ie. Die gebied bestaan grotendeels uit geplooide gesteentes van die Supergroep Kaap (hoofsaaklik Groep Witteberg). AIle plooirigtings openbaar dieselfde plooistyl. Reologiese verskille in'die rnultilaehet egter gelei tot die ontwikkeling van of sinusoidale ~f knikvorrnigeplooie in verskillende dele van die dekgesteentes. Die Wittebergsedirnente se aard het veroorsaak dat rnegaknikkeen eienaardige plooisones in hierdie deel van die opeenvolging ontstaan het. Plooirigtings in die Ceres-sintaks wissel tussen NW-SO, NO-SW en O-W. Die NO-SW plooirigting oorheers in die suidelike deel van die gebied, terwyl die NW-SO plooirigting eintlik net in. die weste belangrik is. Interferensie van hierdie twee.hoofrigtings korn slegs voor in die Groep Witteberg, waar dit as dwarssnydende lineere plooisones en snydende, konjugerende knikke aanwesig is. Onderlinge verhoudings tussen kruisplooie in die noordoostelike Ceres-sintaks, toon dat die gebied beinvloed is deur twee gelyktydige drukspannings wat reghoekig op rnekaar ingewerk het, sorntyds in effens verskillende dele van die rnultilaag.Verskille in die spanningsbedrag en tydsberekening het lokale herplooiing of dwarssnydende strukture veroorsaak. Die mikrornaaksel van die Wittebergsandsteen toon dat die vervorming onder lae temperatuur- en druktoestande, tesame met 'n lae vervorrningsternpo, plaasgevind het. Die rnaaksel toon ook aan dat heelwat buigplooiing plaasgevind het terwyl die Middel- en Bo-Witteberglae nog ongekonsolideer was. Isotopiese datering van Sederbergskalie afkornstigvan die twee hoofplooirigtings, het weens die lae vervormingsintensiteit swak resultate gelewer. Die posisie van die sintaks van die Kaapse Plooigordel, insluitende die van die Ceres-sintaks, is sterk' belnvioed deur die tektoniese grein en re~i~f van die vloergesteentes. Die heterogene vloer waarop die NW en NO plooie gevorrn het, het daartoe gelei dat die eksterne spanningsopset verdeel is in kornponentewat gelyktydig na die noordweste en noordooste gewerk het. Sedirnentasiepatrone in die Groepe Ecca en Beaufort ondersteun bostaande afleidings.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/67079
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