Food choices and macro- and micronutrient intake of Sowetans with chronic heart failure

Pretorius, Sandra S. (2011-03)

Thesis (MPhil (Rehabilitation))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In South Africa, rapid urbanisation and epidemiological transition have left the black urban population vulnerable to diseases of lifestyle such as chronic heart failure. This is in part due to the fact that changes in dietary patterns during urbanization play an important role in the increase of risk factors of these diseases. However, there is a lack of information on dietary choices of black urban populations. Therefore the current study evolved to describe the food choices and macro-and micronutrient intake of black, urban Sowetans, newly diagnosed with chronic heart failure, who attended the outpatient cardiac clinic at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. A descriptive study methodology that made use of quantitative methods of data collection was used. Study participants comprised Sowetans with chronic heart failure who attended the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital outpatient cardiac clinic for the first time. Consecutive sampling followed by stratified random sampling was used to identify study participants. Participants were stratified for gender. Hundred persons participated in the study. Data was collected through the Food Frequency Questionnaire, a demographic questionnaire and measuring of height and weight. Data from the FFQ's was analysed for macro- and micronutrient intake by using the MRC "Food Finder 3‟ programme. Data were analysed by a statistician using StatSoft, Inc. (2009) STATISTICA, version 9.0. A p value of 0.05 was seen as statistically significant. The most significant clinical finding is an inadequate intake of certain micro nutrients and excessive salt consumption. Study participants continued to eat the more traditional carbohydrate foods. These staples were supplemented by highly refined carbohydrate sources, such as added sugar, sweets and chocolates, cakes, biscuits and cold drinks. Women ate significantly more maltabella (p=0.04), sweets and chocolates (p=0.01) than men, while men consumed significantly more, meat (p=0.01), milk and milk products (p=0.04), additional salt (p=0.02) and take away foods (p=0.05). Both genders had inadequate intake of Vitamin D [men 4 mcg/day (p=0.00), and women, 4 mcg/day (p=0.01)], selenium, [46 mcg/day (p=0.03) and 32 mcg/day (p=0.00)], folate [215 mcg/day (p=0.00) and 179 mcg/day (p=0.00)] and Vitamin C [71 mg/day (p=0.05) and 66 mg/day (p=0.07)]. Women had an inadequate intake of iron of 9 mg/day (P=0.00). It is recommended that dietary health promotion packages are developed and targeted specifically at this high risk community. Key words: Chronic heart failure, black, urban, food choices, macro-and micronutrients.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die swart stedelike bevolking in Suid Afrika gaan gebuk onder 'n al groter wordende risiko vir leefstyl siektes soos kroniese hartversaking. Dit kan gedeeltelik toegeskryf word aan veranderinge in dieet patrone as gevolg van verstedeliking en die epidemiologiese oorgang. Daar is egter nie genoeg inligting oor die voedselkeuses van swart stedelike bevolkingsgroepe nie. Die huidige studie het dus ontwikkel uit die behoefte om die voedselkeuses en mikro- en makronutrient inname van swart, stedelike Soweto inwoners wat nuut gediagnoseer is met hartversaking en die buitepasiënt kardiologie kliniek by Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospitaal bygewoon het, te bepaal. Daar was gebruik gemaak van 'n beskrywende studie metodologie wat gebruik gemaak het van kwantitatiewe metodes van data insameling. Deelnemers aan die studie het bestaan uit swart inwoners van Soweto met kroniese hartversaking wat die buitepasiënt kardiologie kliniek by Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospitaal vir die eerste keer bygewoon het. 'n Opeenvolgende steekproef, gevolg deur gestratifiseerde steekproefneming was gebruik om die studie deelnemers te identifiseer. Deelnemers was gestratifiseer volgens geslag. Eenhonderd pesone het aan die studie deelgeneem. Data is ingesamel deur gebruik te maak van die Voedsel Frekwensie Vraelys, a demografiese vraelys en die meet van lengte en gewig. Data van die Voedsel Frekwensie Vraelyste was ge-analiseer vir mikro-en makronutrient inname met die MRC ”Food Finder 3” program. Data is ge-analiseer deur 'n statistikus met die „StatSoft, Inc. (2009) STATISTICA, version 9.0‟. 'n P waarde van 0.05 is gesien as statisties beduidend. Mees beduidendste kliniese bevinding was die ontoereikende inname van sekere mikro-nutriënte en die verhoogde inname van sout. Studie deelnemers het nog steeds die meer tradisionele koolhidraat voedsels geëet. Hierdie stapel voedsels was aangevul deur hoogs verfynde bronne van koolhidrate, soos ekstra suiker, lekkergoed en sjokolade, koek, koekies en koeldrank. Die vrouens het beduidend meer maltabella (p=0.01), lekkergoed en sjokolade (p=0.01) geëet as mans, terwyl mans beduidend meer vleis (p=0.01), melk en melkprodukte (p=0.04), bygevoegde sout (p=0.02) en wegneem kosse (p=0.05) ingeneem het. Beide geslagte het ontoereikende innames van vitamiene D [mans 4 mcg/dag (p=0.00), en vrouens, 4 mcg/dag (p=0.01)], selenium [46 mcg/dag (p=0.03) en 32 mcg/dag (p=0.00)], foliensuur [215 mcg/dag (p=0.00) en 179 mcg/dag (p=0.00)] en vitamiene C [71 mg/dag (p=0.05) en 66 mg/dag (p=0.07)]. Vrouens het 'n ontoereikende inname van yster van 9 mg/dag (p=0.00) gehad. Daar word aanbeveel dat gesonde voedingsprogramme ontwikkel word, spesifiek gemik op hierdie bevolkingsgroep. Sleutelwoorde: Kroniese hartversaking, swart, verstedeliking, voedselkeuses, makro- en mikronutriënte.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6662
This item appears in the following collections: