Molecular screening of lactic acid bacteria enzymes and their regulation under oenological conditions

Mtshali, Phillip Senzo (2011-03)

Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: During winemaking, a number of biochemical changes occur as a result of the metabolic activity of wine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with malolactic fermentation (MLF). The latter process, which occurs mostly after alcoholic fermentation by wine yeasts, involves the conversion of L-malate to L-lactate and CO2, thus resulting to wine acidity reduction, microbiological stabilization and alterations of wine organoleptic quality. Although Oenococcus oeni is predominantly the most preferred species suitable for carrying out MLF in wine owing to its desirable oenological properties, Lactobacillus plantarum has also been considered as a potential candidate for MLF induction. Other species in the genera of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus are often associated with wine spoilage. These microorganisms induce wine spoilage by producing off-flavours derived from their metabolic activity. It is therefore of paramount importance to understand the mechanism by which wine microbiota cause spoilage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of genes encoding enzymes of oenological relevance in wine-associated LAB strains. In order to achieve this, different sets of specific primers were designed and employed for a wide-scale genetic screening of wine LAB isolates for the presence of genes encoding enzymes involved in various metabolic pathways, such as citrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, hydrolysis of glycosides, degradation of phenolic acids as well as proteolysis and peptidolysis. PCR detection results showed that the majority of the tested strains possessed most of the genes tested for. It was also noted that, among the O. oeni strains tested for the presence of the pad gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase, only two strains possessed this gene. None of the O. oeni strains has previously been shown to possess the pad gene, and this study was the first to report on the presence of this gene in O. oeni strains. In an attempt to genetically characterize this putative gene, DNA fragments from the two positive O. oeni strains were sequenced. The newly determined sequences were compared to other closely related species. Surprisingly, no match was found when these sequences were compared to the published genomes of three O. oeni strains (PSU-1, ATCC BAA-1163 and AWRI B429). This reinforced a speculation that the pad gene in these two strains might have been acquired via the horizontal gene transfer. In addition, it remains to be further determined if the presence of this gene translates to volatile phenol production in wine. In this study, a novel strain isolated from South African grape and wine samples was also identified and characterized. The identification of this strain was performed through the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, which indicated that this strain belongs to Lactobacillus florum (99.9% sequence identity). A novel PCR assay using a species-specific primer for the rapid detection and identification of Lb. florum strains was also established. For further characterization, this strain was also investigated for the presence of genes encoding enzymes of oenological relevance. PCR detection results indicated that the Lb. florum strain also possess some of the genes tested for. In addition to genetic screening of wine LAB isolates for the presence of different genes, this study was also aimed at evaluating the regulation of the mleA gene encoding malate decarboxylase in three oenological strains of O. oeni. The regulation of this gene was tested in a synthetic wine medium under various conditions of pH and ethanol. From the expression analysis, it was observed that the mleA gene expression was negatively affected by high ethanol content in the medium. On the other hand, low pH of the medium seemed to favour the expression of this gene as the mleA gene expression was more pronounced at pH 3.2 than at pH 3.8. The findings from this study have shed more light on the distribution of a wide array of enzyme-encoding genes in LAB strains associated with winemaking. However, it remains unknown if the enzymes encoded by these genes are functional under oenological conditions, given that wine is such a hostile environment encompassing a multitude of unfavourable conditions for the enzymes to work on. Evaluating the expression of these genes will also help give more insights on the regulation of the genes under winemaking conditions.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gedurende wynmaak, sal 'n aantal biochemiese veranderinge plaasvind as gevolg van die metaboliese aktiwiteit van wyn melksuurbakterieë (MSB) wat betrokke is by appelmelksuurgisting (AMG). Die laasgenoemde proses, wat meestal na alkoholiese fermentasie deur wyngiste plaasvind, behels die omskepping van L-malaat na L-laktaat en CO2, om sodoende die wyn se suur te verminder, mikrobiologiese stabiliteit en verandering van wyn organoleptiese kwaliteit. Alhoewel Oenococcus oeni hoofsaaklik die mees gewenste spesies is wat geskik is vir die uitvoering van AMG in wyn weens sy geskikte wynkundige eienskappe, Lactobacillus plantarum word ook beskou as 'n potensiële kandidaat vir AMG induksie. Ander spesies in die genera Lactobacillus en Pediococcus word dikwels geassosieer met wynbederf. Hierdie mikro-organismes veroorsaak wynbederf deur die produksie van wangeure as gevolg van hul metaboliese aktiwiteite. Dit is dus van kardinale belang dat die meganisme van die wynbederf verstaan word. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die teenwoordigheid van koderend ensieme gene van wynkundige belang in wynverwante MSB stamme te ondersoek. Ten einde dit te bereik, was verskillende stelle van spesifieke peilers ontwerp en toegepas vir 'n groot skaal se genetiese toetsing van wyn MSB isolate vir die teenwoordigheid van ensiemkoderende gene betrokke by verskeie metaboliese paaie, soos sitraat metabolisme, aminosuur metabolisme, hidrolise van glikosiede, agteruitgang van fenoliese sure sowel as proteolise en peptidolise. PKR opsporings resultate het getoon dat die meerderheid van die stamme getoets, die meeste van die gene getoets voor besit. Dit is ook opgemerk dat, onder die O. oeni stamme getoets vir die teenwoordigheid van die pad geen, slegs twee stamme hierdie geen besit. Geen O. oeni stamme het voorheen gewys dat hul die pad geen besit, en hierdie studie was die eerste bewys oor die teenwoordigheid van hierdie geen in O. oeni stamme. In 'n poging om die geen geneties te karakteriseer, is DNA-fragmente van die twee positiewe O. oeni stamme se sekwens volgorde bepaal. Die DNA volgorde is vergelyk met ander nouverwante spesies. Verrassend, was geen passende DNA volgorde gevind met die gepubliseerde genome van drie O. oeni stamme (PSU-1, ATCC BAA-1163 en AWRI B429) nie. Dit versterk die spekulasie dat die pad geen in hierdie twee stamme via die horisontale geen-oordrag verkry is. Verder moet dit nog bepaal word of die teenwoordigheid van hierdie geen lei na vlugtige fenol produksie in wyn. In hierdie studie, is ongeïdentifiseerde stam geïsoleerd van Suid-Afrikaanse druiwe en wyn monsters ook geïdentifiseer en karakteriseer. Die identifisering van hierdie stam is uitgevoer deur middel van die 16S rDNA volgorde analise, wat aangedui het dat hierdie stam behoort aan Lactobacillus florum (99.9% volgorde identiteit). PKR toetse met behulp van die spesie-spesifieke peiler vir die vinnige opsporing en identifikasie van Lb. florum stamme is ook ontwikkel. Vir verdere karakterisering, was hierdie stam ook ondersoek vir die teenwoordigheid van koderende ensiem gene van wynkundige belang. PKR opsporings resultate het aangedui dat die Lb. florum stam ook oor 'n paar van die gene getoets voor besit. Bykomend tot genetiese toetsing van wyn MSB isolate vir die teenwoordigheid van verskillende gene, het die studie ook die evaluering van die regulering van die mleA geen, kodering malaatdekarboksilase in drie wyn stamme van O. oeni. Die regulering van hierdie geen was getoets in die sintetiese wynmedium onder verskillende pH en etanol kondisies. Van die uitdrukkingsresultate, is daar waargeneem dat die mleA geenuitdrukking is negatief geraak deur hoë etanol-inhoud in die medium. Aan die ander kant, in die lae pH medium was die uitdrukking van hierdie geen bevoordeel by pH 3.2 as by pH 3.8. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie het meer lig gewerp op die verspreiding van die wye verskeidenheid van ensiem-koderende gene in MSB stamme wat verband hou met wynmaak. Dit bly egter steeds onbekend of die ensieme gekodeer deur hierdie gene funksioneel is onder wynkondisies, gegewe dat wyn so 'n vyandige omgewing is menigte ongunstige toestande vir die werking van ensieme. Evaluering van die uitdrukking van hierdie gene sal ook help om meer insigte gee oor die regulering van die gene onder wynmaak toestande.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6496
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