Sarah Kane en die liriek as literêr-musikale interteks

Hamman, Frans Josias (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-03)

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die literêre interteks staan sentraal tot die teks-analitiese proses en die gevolglike ontsluiting van betekenis binne die oeuvre van Sarah Kane, maar in die huidige besprekings van haar werk, word hierdie interteks alleenlik tot literatuur soos die roman, die gedig en die teaterteks beperk. Die gevolg is dat daar ‘n totale verontagsaming van die neerslag van die liriek as nóg ‘n tipe literêre interteks is. Beide James Macdonald (in Fisher 2001b) en Iain Fisher (2001b) dui daarop dat lirieke van heelparty orkeste - o.a. Joy Division, Radiohead, Nirvana en die Beatles - in Kane se werk nagespeur kan word, maar geeneen blyk ondersoek na die moontlike redes vir die ontlening daarvan óf hoe dit die betekeniswaarde van haar werk informeer, in te stel nie. Deur op Still en Worton (1990:1-2) se teorie dat die leser van ‘n teks sy/haar eie intertekste op daardie teks van toepassing kan maak in ‘n poging om die betekenis daarvan te ontsluit (selfs al word betrokke intertekste nie noodwendig deur die skrywer erken nie), te trek, word daarop gedui waar en hoe verskeie lirieke van voorgenoemde vier orkeste hul neerslag in vier van Kane se dramas, Phaedra’s Love, Cleansed, Crave en 4.48 Psychosis vind. Na gelang van Michael Riffaterre (1990:58) se teorie omtrent “connectives” (in hierdie geval die lirieke wat Kane se tekste met liedjies uit die populêre kultuur verbind) en hoe ‘n deeglike voorkennis daaromtrent die leser daartoe in staat stel om te bepaal of betrokke “connective” wel die teenwoordigheid van ‘n interteks daarstel al dan nie, word ‘n deeglike studie van elkeen van die lirieke gedoen. Daarna word verskeie raakpunte tussen hierdie lirieke en Kane se tekste uitgewys, hetsy dit met onderwerpmateriaal of tematiek verband hou, sodat ge-argumenteer word dat hierdie lirieke wel as intertekste beskou kan word. Vervolgens word die betekenisse van die onderskeie lirieke op Kane se dramas (spesifiek die tematiek daarvan) van toepassing gemaak en daar word ge-argumenteer dat hierdie intertekste óf bestaande beskouings daarvan ondersteun en moontlik daarop uitbrei óf dat dit tot radikaal nuwe insigte omtrent haar werk aanleiding gee, sodat nuwe en oorspronklike benaderings tot tematiek en karakters in die toekoms gevolg sou kon word. Uiteindelik illustreer ek aan die hand van my meestersproduksie empty (2010) hoe ek my benadering tot die neerslag van die liriek as interteks in Kane se werk op genoemde produksie van toepassing gemaak het, sodat die betekenis daarvan ook na gelang van die liriek as interteks duidelik word.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The intertextual relationship between Kane’s own work and those literary sources she derives ideas and adopts words from, plays a vital part in the textual analysis of her oeuvre. However, current discussions about and analyses of this intertextual relationship only focus on the novel, the poem and the play as literary intertexts and their subsequent influence on the interpretation of her work. This results in a complete disregard for the lyric’s use as another type of literary intertext (where the lyric is to be understood as the written and not the sung word). James Macdonald (in Fisher 2001b) and Iain Fisher (2001b) both refer to the presence of lyrics from various bands - among them Joy Division, Radiohead, Nirvana and The Beatles - in Kane’s work, but neither of them preoccupy themselves with the further investigation as to why these lyrics have been borrowed or how they inform the interpretation of her work. Drawing on Still and Worton’s (1990:1-2) theory that “the reader’s experience of some practice or theory unknown to the author may lead to a fresh interpretation” of any given text he/she reads (i.e. where the reader applies the knowledge about his/her own intertexts in an attempt to decipher the meaning of the text he/she is currently reading or studying), a clear indication of where and how various lyrics from aforementioned bands can be found in four of Kane’s dramas: Phaedra’s Love, Cleansed, Crave and 4.48 Psychosis. Based on Michael Riffaterre’s (1990:58) theory of “connectives” (in this case those lyrics which establish a connection between Kane’s plays and songs from popular culture) and how proper foreknowledge about these “connectives” can help in determining whether they do establish an intertextual relationship between the play and the song(s) or not, a thorough study of every lyric is undertaken and various similarities between them and Kane’s plays are highlighted. Based on these similarities (whether it be with regard to themes, subject matter or characterization), arguments are made that these lyrics should be viewed as intertexts, and the meanings and analyses of these lyrics are subsequently applied to Kane’s work. In the end these literary intertexts either support existing views and interpretations of her work, or they lead to radically new insights about the work, so that new, innovative and original approaches can henceforth be followed with regard to themes and characterization in her work. Finally I use my own master’s production, empty (2010), as an example to illustrate how I applied the research I have done about the lyric as an intertext in Kane’s work, on my own work and how these various lyrics help to give a better understanding of the play.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6475
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