Die invloed van die allergiese reaksie op die respiratoriese sisteem, met spesifieke verwysing na die rol van die rondewurm, Ascaris lumbricoides

Vermeulen, Magdalena (1995-03)

Thesis (MSc) -- Stellenbosch University, 1995.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the allergic reaction on the respiratory system. The influence of parasite infestation (with specific reference to the roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides) on the normal functioning of the respiratory system was also investigated. Firstly a pilot study was done to determine the normal immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels of coloured newborns in the Western Cape. The cord blood IgE values of a group of coloured newborns were determined by using the RIA technique. Although a mean value was reached, it is important for more controlled studies, that would take into account a variety of factors, to be done before determining separate reference values for this population. The levels of one of the most important effector cells in the allergic reaction, namely eosinphils, were determined in a group of asthma patients by using the counting chamber method. In all the cases the eosinophil levels were elevated The influence of Ascaris lumbricoides on the respiratory system was investigated from two different points of view, namely the possible allergic reactions it could induce in the host and secondly by determing the influence of this parasite on one of the parametres of the respiratory system, namely the peak expiratory flow (PEF) values. In the first case the presence of specific Ascaris allergens in a group of asthma patients was determined by using the RAST technique. The incidence of these specific allergens was however not high. Secondly the PEF values of two groups (the one group was infested with the roundworm and the other not) were compared. Wet stool mounts were investigated under a light microscope to identy parasite ova. There was however no significant difference in PEF values between these two groups. This study underlines the complex interaction between parasites and the respiratory system. Further studies in this regard are needed in order to fully understand the nature of this interaction.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om ondersoek in te stel na die invloed wat die allergiese reaksie uitoefen op die respiratoriese sisteem. Daar is verder ook aandag gegee aan die uitwerking van parasiet infestasies (met spesifieke verwysing na die rondewurm, Ascaris lumbricoides) op die normale funksionering van die respiratoriese sisteem. 'n Loodsstudie is eerstens uitgevoer ten einde normale immunoglobulien E (IgE) vlakke vir Kleurling pasgeborenes te bepaal. lgE bepalings is gedoen op die nawelstring bloed van 'n groep Kleurling babas in die Wes-Kaap. Die RIA tegniek is vir hierdie doel gebruik. Hoewel 'n gemiddelde waarde verkry is, is dit egter noodsaaklik dat meer gekontrolleerde studies wat 'n wye verskeidenheid van faktore in ag neem, uitgevoer sal moet word alvorens aparte verwysingswaardes vir hierdie bevolkingsgroep saamgestel kan word. Die voorkoms van een van die belangrikste effektor selle in die allergiese reaksie, naamlik eosinofiele, is bepaal in die bloed van 'n groep asma pasiente. Die eosinofiele is getel deur gebruik te maak van die telkamer metode. In al die gevalle was die eosinofiel vlakke verhoog. Die invloed van Ascaris lumbricoides op die respiratoriese sisteem is vanuit twee oogpunte ondersoek, naamlik die uitlokking van 'n allergiese respons in ~ie gasheer en die invloed van hierdie parasiet op een van die parameters van longfunksie, naamlik "peak expiratory flow" (PEF) vlakke. In die eerste geval is die mate van teenwoordigheid van Ascaris allergene in 'n groep asma pasiente bepaal deur gebruik te maak van die RAST tegniek. Die insidensie van allergie teen hierdie allergene was egter nie hoog nie. Tweedens is die PEF waardes van twee groepe proefpersone (die een groep gei:nfesteer met Ascaris lumbricoides en die ander groep nie) met mekaar vergelyk. Daar was egter nie 'n beduidende verskil tussen die waardes van die twee groepe nie. Parasiet ova is gei:dentifiseer deur die maak van eenvoudige nat stoelgang smere en die ondersoek daarvan onder 'n ligmiroskoop. In hierdie studie word die komplekse aard van die interaksie tussen parasiete en die respiratoriese sisteem duidelik na vore gebring. Verdere studies is nodig ten einde die verband tussen hierdie twee faktore te bepaal.

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