Die ontwikkeling en evaluering van 'n opleidingsprogram in selfinsig

Oosthuizen, Riaan (1994-12)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 1994.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Research conducted by Albert Ellis (1978) revealed that individuals' concepts of their own rational and irrational and/or dysfunctional cognitions are important determinants of effective human functioning. The presence of these cognitions within an individual can have several consequences such as depression, neuroses and psychoses. It is clear from the literature (Ellis, 1978; Dryden & Gordon, 1990; Lodder, 1993) that one of the causative factors in manifestations of emotional instability is individuals' lack of knowledge about their psyches. The general aim of this study is to develop a programme which lead to positive human functioning, including self-acceptance and selfempowerment, on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on all possible coping skills (Lodder, 1993). Several approaches were considered which could promote Self-insight, namely rational-emotive therapy, transactional analysis and the use of projective techniques. Each of these aspects was dealt with fully and reasons are provided for the selection of rational-emotive therapy. Rational-emotive therapy provides participants with the necessaryknowledge to identify and combat their own irrational and/or dysfunctional cognitions. Before Ellis's cognitive questionnaire could be used in the evaluation process, the psychometric characteristics of the instrument had to be determined first. A further aim is to adapt Ellis's cognitive questionnaire according to scientifically recognized procedures to measure human functioning on a rational -basis as a psychometrically acceptable measuring instrument. A primary psychometric requirement of a measuring instrument is that its items must be sufficiently homogeneous to be able to regard them as criteria of a single construct. Ellis's cognitive questionnaire (adapted) demonstrated a particularly satisfactory internal consistency (alpha coefficient = 0,89; N = 250). With the help of a factor analysis Ellis's cognitive questionnaire (adapted) was developed in such a way that the items in the subscales were all relatively pure measurements of the isolated factors. Furthermore, the results of the factor analysis produced five factors which could be linked relatively clearly to the five postulated dimensions of irrational cognition. To ascertain whether participation in the programme by 90 female and 30 male administrative staff members did in fact lead to the envisaged result, the Solomon four - group design was used to evaluate it. Evaluation of the programme was undertaken on the basis of Kirkpatrick's evaluation model by concentrating on the knowledge, reaction and behavioural levels. A knowledge test was used to measure knowledge, a reaction questionnaire was used for participantsreactions and Ellis's cognitive Questionnaire (adapted) for evaluation at the behavioural level. The most important findings of the investigation could be summed up as follows: • The experimental group acquired significantly more knowledge about irrational cognitions than the control group did. • After the programme the experimental group made significantly more use of cognitive restructuring as a coping style than the control group did. • The experimental group revealed considerably fewer dysfunctional cognitions. Certain shortcomings also emerged from this investigation. Recommendations are made according to which these specific shortcomings can be addressed in future research in this field.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Albert Ellis se navorsing (1978) het aan die lig gebring dat individue se begrip vir hulle onderskeie rasionele en irrasionele en/of disfunksionele kognisies 'n belangrike determinant is van doeltreffende menslike funksionering. Die aanwesigheid van hierdie kognisies binne 'n individu kan verskeie gevolge he soos depressie, neuroses en psigoses. Dit blyk uit die literatuur (Ellis, 1978; Dryden & Gordon, 1990; Lodder, 1993) dat een van die veroorsakende faktore van manifestasie van emosionele onstabiliteit die gebrek is aan kennis van individue rondom hulle psiges. Die algemene doelstelling van die studie is om aan die hand van 'n omvattende literatuurstudie van aile moontlike "helpende vaardighede" \ (Lodder, 1993) 'n program te ontwikkel wat individue kan lei tot positiewe menslike funksionering met in begrip van selfaanvaarding en selfbemagtiging. Verskillende benaderings wat gebruik kan word om Selfinsig te bewerkstellig, naamlik Rasioneel-emotiewe terapie, Transaksionele Analise en die gebruik van Projektiewe Tegnieke is oorweeg. Daar is volledig aandag gegee aan elk van hierdie aspekte en redes verstrek vir die keuse van Rasioneel-emotiewe terapie. Rasioneel-emotiewe terapie verskaf aan die deelnemers die nodige kennis en vaardighede om hulle en gedragsvlak te konsentreer. 'n Kennistoets is gebruik vir kennismeting, 'n reaksievraelys vir deelnemerreaksies en Ellis se Kognitiewe vraelys (aangepasl vir evaluering op gedragsvlak. Die vernaamste bevindings van die ondersoek kan soos volg opgesom word: • Die eksperimentele groep het beduidend meer kennis en insig oor rasionele kognisies opgedoen as die kontrolegroep. • Die eksperimentele groep het na die program beduidend meer as die kontrolegroep van kognitiewe herstrukturering as behartigingstyl gebruik gemaak. • Die eksperimentele groep het beduidend minder disfunksionele kognisies openbaar. Sekere leemtes het uit hierdie ondersoek geblyk. Aanbevelings is aan die hand gedoen waarvolgens hierdie sp~sifieke leemtes in toekomstige navorsing op hierdie terrein oorbrug kan word. eie irrasionele en/of disfunksionele kognisies te kan identifiseer en betwis. Alvorens Ellis' se Kognitiewe vraelys gebruik kon word in die evalueringsproses moes die psigometriese eienskappe van die instrument eers bepaal word. 'n Verdere doelstelling is om Ellis se kognitiewe vraelys volgens wetenskaplik-erkende prosedures aan te pas om as psigometriese aanvaarbare meetinstrument menslike funksionering aan die hand van rasionaliteit te meet. 'n Primere psigometriese vereiste vir 'n meetinstrument is dat sy items voldoende homogeen moet wees om dit te kan beskou as 'n maatstaf van 'n enkele konstruk. Ellis se Kognitiewe vraelys (aangepas) het 'n besondere bevredigende interne bestendigheid gedemonstreer (koeffisient alfa = 0,89; N = 250). Ellis se Kognitiewe vraelys (aangepas) is met behulp van 'n faktorontleding ontwikkel waarvan die items in die subskale almal relatief suiwer metings van die geTsoleerde faktore is. Verder het die faktoranalitiese resultate vyf faktore opgelewer wat redelik duidelik aan die gepostuleerde vyf dimensies van irrasionele kognisies gekoppel kon word. Om te bepaal of die bywoning van die program, deur 90 vroulike en 30 manlike administratiewe personeel, wei tot die beoogde resultate aanleiding gee, is die Solomon vier-groep ontwerp vir die evaluering daarvan gebruik. Evalueririg van die program is aan die hand van Kirkpatrick se evalueringsmodel gedoen deur op die kennis-, reaksie-

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