Die bestuur en administrasie van burgerlike beskerming in Suid-Afrika

Cronje, Johannes Andreas (1993-12)

Thesis (MPA) -- Stellenbosch University, 1993.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The history and development of civil protection in South Africa, as well as in seven world states, appear to have common characteristics. The phenomenon civil protection and the authoritive allocation of protection values can be categorised in three models. The traditional model depicts the allocation of protection values based on inheritance from generation to generation. The command approach refers to the allocation and exercising of protection values in accordance with authoritative and dictatorial government powers. The market model of civil protection refers to the free market mechanism within which the demand and supply of protection values will determine the nature and extent of civil protection measures. The origin and development of civil protection world wide can be traced back from the earliest times, i.e. from the family grouping through feudalism, mercantalism and city states up to the contemporary representative government systems. The general theory of civil protection, based on the semantics and genetics of civil protection, identifies the authoritive allocation of protection values in accordance with five perspectives viz; (a) the historic traditional perspective based on the evolutionary development of protection skills handed down from generation to generation; (b) the war perspective with threats against civilians, in times of war, being the motivation for civil protection; (c) the disaster- and emergency situation perspective with man- and natural caused threats being the motivation for civil protection; (d) the generic perspective with logic in accordance with semantics and genetics being the motivation for understanding civil protection; and (e) the human need perspective with deprivation of human need satisfaction giving rise to civil protection. In South Africa civil protection can be described in relation to informal civil protection based on resistance movements, to the left of the government-of-the-day political spectrum as well as to the right of the government-of-the-day political spectrum. Due to the early stage of existence, research on right wing resistance can only be superfluous. Nongovernmental organisations represent the second formation of informal civil protection. South African civil protection based on legislation in the form of political acts as well as executive legislation, formulated by the burocracy, the so-called regime, represents the third formation of civil protection viz. formal civil protection. The efficiency of civil protection in South Africa is a bone of contemporary contention due to present day unrest- and natural contingencies that threatens civilians. Theoretical principles of efficiency, based on five approaches in determining organisation efficiency can be compared to the status of civil protection in South Africa, by way of an introspection and problem statement in order to evaluate the performance of civil protection. An eclectic approach based on the five approaches mentioned, is an appropriate method of evaluating organisational efficiency. The efficiency of the resistance- and non-governmental civil protection formations in South Africa seems to be adequate for continued existence within the South African protection environment. The formal formation of civil protection seems to have an inadequate standard of organisational efficiency. A normative future perspective is therefore essential. The generic all encompassing nature of civil protection as phenomenon should be confirmed, along with the prerogative of non-governmental organisations and resistance movements to be acknowledged as civil protection formations. Formal civil protection in South Africa encompasses the entire governmental sector with all its branches and within all levels of hierarchy. The establishment of a Corporate Civil Protection Support and Management Prooramme, as a facilitating staff function for the protection of civilians, is recommended in order to alleviate the present standard of formal civil protection inefficiency and in eliminating malperceptions on civil protection. The Corporate Management Programme, should eliminate the fragmentations, duplications and encroachments currently existing within formal civil protection in South Africa. Contributions to the efficiency of civil protection can also be realised.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Burgerlike beskerming openbaar wêreldwyd bepaalde geskiedkundige en ontstaanskenmerke. Beskermingswaardes word gesaghebbend toegewys volgens drie benaderings oftewel toewysingsmodelle. Die tradisionele model, verwys na die toewysing van beskermingswaardes kragtens oorerwing van geslag tot geslag. Die bevelsbenadering verwys na die toewysing en uitoefening van beskermingswaardes kragtens outoritêre en diktatoriale regeringsmag. Die markmodel van burgerlike beskerming verwys na die vryemarkmeganisme waar die vraag en aanbod na beskermingswaardes sal bepaal wat die omvang van burgerlike beskermingsmaatreëls sal wees. Die ontstaan en geskiedenis van burgerlike beskerming wêreldwyd dateer sedert die vroegste tye vanaf die familiegroepering deur die feudalisme, merkantilisme en stadstate tot die hedendaagse verteenwoordigende regeringstelsel. Die algemene teorie van burgerlike beskerming, aan die hand van die betekenis van die term en kragtens die genetiek en semantiek, bevestig vyf perspektiewe as verklaring vir die bestaan van burgerlike beskerming, naamlik: (a) die kultuur-historiese perspektief met evolusie van tradisionele beskermingsgebruike as verklaring; (b) die oorlogsperspektief stel oorlogsbedreigings teen die burgerlike as verklaring; (c) die ramp- en noodbestuursperspektief, stel ramp- en noodtoestand bedreigings as verklaring; (d) die behoefte bevredigingsperspektief, stel ontneming van die menslike reg tot behoeftebevrediging as verklaring: en (e) die generiese perspektlef stel logika kragtens die semantiek en genetiek as verklaring. In Suid-Afrika word weerstand informele burgerlike beskerming bedryf deur weerstandsbewegings, oftewel bevrydingsbewegings links van die regering-van-die-dag politieke spektrum, sowel as regs van die regering-van-die-dag politieke spektrum. Nie-owerheid organisasies as 'n vergestalting van nie-owerheid informele burgerlike beskerming word vry algemeen aangetref as die tweede informele vergestalting en word bedryf deur die privaatsektor as sake-ondernemings, welsynsorganisasies en gemeenskapsgroeperings soos sosiale klubs. Formele burgerlike beskerming aan die hand van afgekondigde politieke- sowel as uitvoerende wetgewing, aan die hand van die burokrasie, die sogenaamde regime, verteenwoordig die derde vergestalting van burgerlike beskerming wat ook vry algerneen in Suid-Afrika aangetref word. Die effektiwiteit van burgerlike beskerming in Suid-Afrika het in die jongste tye 'n knellende vraagstuk geword vanwee toenemende bedreiging teen burgerlikes. Die teoretiese grondslag van die betekenis van effektiwiteit asook benaderings tot organisasie-effektiwiteit kan, indien met oorleg toegepas, 'n geldige aanduiding wees van burgerlike beskerming effektiwiteit. Formele burgerlike beskerming in Suid-Afrika, toon 'n kommerenswaardige standaard van effektiwiteit aan die hand van 'n introspeksie en probleemstelling. Daar· teenoor toon die twee informele vergestaltings 'n toereikende effektiwiteitstandaard ten einde voortgesette funksionering te regverdig. Die normatiewe toekoms van burgerlike beskerming in Suid-Afrika, kragtens aard en omvang, behoort normatief opgeklaar te word ten einde die persepsiologiese dwalings en verwarrings op te klaar. Die generies-omvattende aard van burgerlike beskerming as verskynsel en die bestaansreg van nie-owerheid organisasies en weerstandsbewegings as informele burgerlike beskermingsvergestaltings behoort amptelik erken te word as deelhouers van burgerlike beskerming. Die normatiewe vooruitskouing van formele burgerlike beskerming daarenteen is 'n aangeleentheid wat indringende en regstellende maatreëls verg. Formele burgerlike beskerming in Suid-Afrika behels die geheel owerheidsektor in sy vele vertakkinge en hierargiese vlakke. Die vestiging van 'n Korporatiewe Burgerlike Beskerming Ondersteunende Bestuursprogram as fasiliterende staffunksie vir die beskerming van burgerlikes is 'n tydgenootlike vernuwing wat ernstige oorweging behoort te geniet. Die vestiging van sodanige Korporatiewe Bestuursprogram word as opklaring vir die Suid-Afrikaanse formele burgerlike beskermingsprobleem voorgehou. Die vestiging en bedryf van die Korporatiewe Bestuursprogram verg dat daar 'n geintegreerde korporatiewe en gekoordineerde program tot stand gebring behoort te word wat bestaande fragmenterings, dupliserings en oorvleuelings van formele burgerlike beskerming in Suid-Afrika behoort uit te skakel en ook die effektiewe beskerming van burgerlikes in Suid-Afrika behoort te realiseer.

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