Die plek van selfopvoeding in die vestiging van 'n demokratiese kultuur in die skoolmileu

Brand, Heinie Andre (1997)

Thesis (D.Ed.)--Stellenbosch University, 1997.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the role self-education plays in establishing a democratic culture in the school milieu. The child's education and the influence adult accompaniment plays in this, provide the framework within which human development takes place. The human being is exposed to diverse influences on a daily basis. He establishes contact with the world and those around him, and in the process develops skills which equip him for life's tasks. The child strives to be regarded as a complete human being, while the adult strives to develop his soul and quality of existence to greater completeness. Self-education is the refined product of education and accompaniment. By means of selfeducation, the human being may fulfil his own potential through personal authority, and is it possible that he becomes that which he is meant to become. Education in South Africa is currently confronted by a striving towards democracy which also aims to be established in society. Democracy may become a way of life in reality, if demonstrated and employed by the individual as a personal life pattern. School is a social ecosystem that should not be considered as isolated from structures in the state order and the education system as a broad society. It is the school's task on micro level to counter the challenges of democratisation and provide children with relevant training and life skills. To realise this ideal, it is also necessary to take a closer look at structures in the local community which have an impact on the school milieu. The parent community, headmaster, leader structures, teacher and pupils become role players in the school environment who can employ democracy as a way of life. A striving towards democracy in schools creates the right ciimate for transparent leader structures. Didactic principles in the classroom should encourage active participation, group work and negotiation skills, so that a curriculum can be employed in the correct manner. Facilitators should inspire passive learners to become active thinkers through the way in which they handle the relevant contents. When a human being demonstrates an attitude of tolerance, respect and recognition, there is a possibility that democracy can be established as a way of life. Democracy in the school milieu can then make an important contribution to the creation of fully developed citizens equipped with the necessary skills. In management practices and school activities, the involvement of children and adults should take place in such a way that every person can experience the opportunity for self-fulfilment and selfdevelopment. A democratic culture in the school milieu has the potential to develop the latent abilities of people (pupils and teachers) and bring it to fuller realisation. Specific norms become good guidelines for an accommodating lifestyle by means of goal-oriented accompaniment. When a human being accepts responsibility for his own development, selfeducation can be achieved. Self-education not only has implications for the democratic school milieu, but ·also for the wider democratic society. It enriches democracy, while the latter, in turn, makes self-education possible.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie is onderneem om die plek van selfopvoeding te bepaal in die vestiging van 'n demokratiese kultuur in die skoolmilieu. Opvoeding van die kind en begeleiding van die volwassene, bied die raamwerk -waarbinne die mens se vorming gestalte kry. Die mens is daagliks blootgestel aan verskillende invloede. Hy tree in verhouding met die wereld en ander rondom horn, en ontwikkel sodoende vaardighede wat horn toerus vir die eise van die lewe. Die kind strewe daarna om as volwaardige mens gereken te word, terwyl die volwassene daarna hunker om die wese en kwaliteit van bestaan tot voller wasdom te laat ontwikkel. Opvoeding en begeleiding het selfopvoeding as verfynde produk. Deur selfopvoeding sou die mens onder persoonlike gesag uitdrukking kan gee aan sy eie potensiaal en is dit moontlik dat die mens word wat hy veronderstel is om te word. Onderwys in Suid-Afrika word gekonfronteer met 'n gees van demokrasie wat ook in die samelewing toenemend strewe na vestiging. Demokrasie kan as leefwyse 'n werklikheid word, wanneer dit deur die indiwidu as persoonlike lewenspatroon gedemonstreer en uitgeleef word. Die skoal is 'n sosiale eko-sisteem wat nie ge·isoleerd gesien kan word van strukture binne die staatsorde en onderwysstelsel as bree gemeenskap nie. Dit is die taak van die skoal op mikrovlak om die uitdagings van demokratisering te verreken en aan kinders relevante opleiding en lewenstoerusting te verskaf. Om hierdie ideaal te verwesenlik is dit ook nodig om strukture in die plaaslike gemeenskap, wat 'n impak op die skoolmilieu het, te ondersoek. Ouergemeenskap, skoolhoof, leierstrukture, onderwyser en leerlinge word rolspelers binne die skoolomgewing wat demokrasie as leefwyse kan voorhou en voorleef. 'n Demokratiese gees binne die skool skep die klimaat vir deursigtige leierstrukture. Didaktiese beginsels behoort in die klaskamer aktiewe deelname, groepwerk en onderhandelingsvaardighede aan te moedig, sodat 'n kurrikulum op gepaste wyse hanteer kan word. Fasiliteerders behoort deur die hantering van relevante inhoude passiewe leerders tot aktiewe denkers te inspireer. Wanneer die mens 'n gees van verdraagsaamheid, respek en erkenning openbaar, bestaan die moontlikheid dat demokrasie as leefwyse gevestig kan word. Demokrasie binne die skoolmilieu sou dan 'n belangrik bydrae kon lewer .tot die vorming van volwaardige en toegeruste landsburgers. Die betrokkenheid van kinders en volwassenes by gebeure in 'n skoal, behoort sodanig te ontvou in bestuurspraktyke en skoolaktiwiteite dat elke betrokkene die geleentheid tot selfontplooiing en selfontwikkeling kan ervaar. 'n Demokratiese kultuur binne die skoolmilieu· het die potensiaal om latente vermoens van mense (leerders en onderwysers) te laat ontluik en tot voller realisering te bring. Spesifieke norme word deur doelgerigte begeleiding wenslike riglyne vir 'n akkommoderende lewensstyl. Wanneer die mens verantwoordelikheid vir sy eie vorming aanvaar, kan selfopvoeding realiseer. Selfopvoeding het nie net implikasies vir die demokratiese skoolmilieu nie, maar oak vir die bree demokratiese gemeenskap. Selfopvoeding staan in diens van demokrasie, terwyl demokrasie juis selfopvoeding moontlik maak.

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