Daniel Francois Malan, 1874-1959 : an ecclesiological study of the influence of his theology

Brink, George William (1997)

Thesis (D. Th.) -- University of Stellenbosch, 1997.

Thesis

ABSTRACT: This study is an analysis of the formation and influence of Daniel Francois Malan's theology on his life and work. It is an ecclesiological analysis from a Reformed perspective. Different theological orientations helped to shape Dr. Malan. At Riebeek-West and Stellenbosch it was the evangelical-reformed tradition that influenced him. At Stellenbosch Theological Seminary he learned the biblical-apologetic tradition. At Utrecht University Dr. Malan was exposed to Ethical Theology. These theological directions remained with him throughout his life. From each theological direction he inherited something. From Ethical Theology, for example, he inherited a synthesis: theology and philosophy coalesced in him. Various philosophical directions also influenced Dr. Malan. Immanuel Kant, Georg Hegel, Johann Fichte and Bishop George Berkeley were some of these. Although he received the Doctor Theologiae degree he wrote a thesis in Philosophy on the Irish philosopher, George Berkeley. Again he inherited something from each philosophical direction. He, for example, inherited from Berkeley his immaterialism with its synthesis. These various theologies and philosophies caused Dr. Malan to become a mediating theologian and influenced his ministry, his newspaper editorship as well as membership of parliament, his career as cabinet minister and prime minister. As dominee at Heidelberg, Transvaal, Montagu and Graaff-Reinet he went far beyond the three basic duties required of a Reformed dominee, namely, preaching the Word, celebration of the two sacraments and exercising church discipline. It was also the syntheses that he adopted from Ethical Theology and Berkeley's immaterialism respectively that helped him to demit from the ministry and enter the world of journalism and politics. Because of his theological orientation, Dr. Malan never drew a line between his newspaper editorship and his membership in parliament. He merged these two careers. The synthesis within Dr. Malan is also evident in his career as cabinet minister. He took it upon himself to give South Africa new national symbols. One of them was Afrikaans as official language. Dr. Malan' s theological orientation also manifested itself in his leadership of the Nationalist Party. It was evident in his handling of the Poor White Issue, the colour issue and the development of the apartheid idea within him. Was it also this synthesis that allowed Dr. Malan to serve as prime minister and foreign minister simultaneously? Dr. Malan' s theology also influenced the formulation of his life's motto which was finally inscribed in the epithaph on his tomb. It says: Glo in God, glo in jou volk en glo in jouself (Believe in God, believe in your nation and believe in yourself) .

OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie is 'n analise van die vorming en invloed van die teologie van Daniel Francois Malan op sy lewe en werk. Dit is 'n ekklesiologiese ontleding vanuit 'n gereformeerde perspektief. Verskillende teologiese orientasies het gehelp om die mens Dr. Malan te fatsoeneer. Op Riebeek-Wes en Stellenbosch was dit die evangelies-gereformeerde tradisie wat hom beinvloed het. Van die Stellenboschse Teologiese Kweekskool het hy die bybels-apologetiese tradisie aangeleer. Aan die Universiteit van Utrecht is hy blootgestel aan die Etiese Teologie. Hierdie teologiese rigtings het hy saamgedra regdeur sy lewe. Van elke teologiese denkrigting het hy iets oorgeerf. Vanuit die Etiese Teologie, bv. het hy die sintese - die vermoe om teologie en filosofie te versoen - geerf. Verskeie filosofiese denkrigtings het ook Dr. Maln beinvloed. Sommige van hulle was Immanuel Kant, Georg Hegel, Johann Fichte en George Berkeley. Alhoewel hy die graad Doctor Theologiae verwerf het, het hy 'n tesis in die filosofie geskryf oor die Ierse filosoof. George Berkeley. Weereens het hy iets geerf van hierdie verskillende filosowe. Van Berkeley, bv. het hy sy leer van immaterialisme met sy sintese geerf. Hierdie verskeidenheid van teologiee en f ilosofiee het Dr. Malan gevorm om 'n versoeningsteoloog (mediating theologian) te word. Hierdie teologie het sy bediening as predikant, sy posisie as redakteur, sy parlementskap en sy beroep as kabinetsminister en premier beinvloed. As dominee op Heidelberg, Transvaal, Monttagu en Graaff-Reinet het Dr. Malan verder gegaan as die drie basiese pligte van 'n gereformeerde dominee, nl., die prediking van die Woord, die bediening van die twee sakramenente en die ui toefening van kerkdissipline. Dr. Malan se teologie . het horn ook gehelp om die aktiewe bediening as predikant te verlaat en toe te tree tot die wereld van politiek en joernalistiek. As gevolg van sy teologiese orientering het Dr. Malan nooit 'n onderskeid getref tussen sy redakteurskap en sy parlementskap. Hy het die twee beroepe versoen. Hierdie sintese van Dr. Malan is ook opvallend in sy beroep as kabinetsminister. Hy het dit op homself geneem om Suid-Afrika nuwe nasionale simbole te gee. Een daarvan was die opheffing van Afrikaans as amptelike taal. Dr. Malan se teologiese orientasie word ook gemanifesteer in sy leierskap van die Nasionale Party. Di t is sigbaar in sy hantering van die Arm Blanke-Kwessie, die Kleurkwessie en die ontwikkeling van die Apartheidsidee in homself. Was dit ook hierdie sintese wat daartoe gelei het dat Dr. Malan gelyktydig as eerste minister en minister van buitelandse sake gedien het? Dr. Malan se teologie het ook die formulering van sy lewensleuse wat ook finaal ingegraveer is in die graf skrif van sy graf steen. Dit lui: "Glo in God, Glo in jou volk en glo in jouself".

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