Boodskaptoepaslikheid in mediagebruik vir gesondheidsopvoeding binne 'n multikulturele ontwikkelende gemeenskap

Hugo, Johann (1997-12)

Proefskrif (Ph. D.) -- Stellenbosch University, 1997.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Messages for health education is a dynamic phenomenon, because it effects the health and well-being of people at all levels. However, health education programmes often fail due to the inappropriateness of media messages. The aim of this research was to support or reject the following hypothesis, namely that messages for health education in a multi-cultural developing community show unique characteristics that depend on specific principles and practical guidelines for improved message appropriateness. The study was organised in three phases, namely a theoretical study, an empirical study, and the design of a model. The theoretical component covered fundamental concepts in health education, health promotion and community development; didactic principles for message appropriateness in health education; influencing factors in health education in a multi-cultural developing society; media applications in health education; as well as communication aspects of health education. Health education is a component of health promotion, and can be defined as any planned learning experience to facilitate informed decision- making about health and disease. An important finding is that messages for health education must aim a particular targets. Consequently, media messages must be based upon the health education needs of individuals, families , and communities. A number of factors determine successful health education, for example the principles of appropriate technology, and the visual literacy as well as socio-cultural background of the target audience. The range of appropriate media for health education includes various low tech audiovisual media and high tech electronic mass media, which can be applied to achieve learning objectives in terms of knowledge, attitudes, and skills, as well as changing health behaviour. In addition, traditional media such as folk songs and puppetry should not be ignored in developing countries. A prerequisite for message appropriateness is that media must be integrated with all teaching and learning activities. This implies that media selection is an important factor in successful health education. In this process the communication codes of each individual medium is a decisive factor, since successful learning is not determined by technology 'as such, but rather by the symbolic code into which a message is dressed. In the empirical study the most important principles for encoding appropriate health education messages were identified and prioritised. The study focused on graphic, photographic, text design and audiovisual program design guidelines, as well as guidelines for socio-cultural contextualisation of messages. The results indicate a general high correlation between the viewpoints of media specialists and dieticians regarding the most important encoding guidelines for the respective media categories. The theoretical and empirical phases, combined with an analysis of certain situational influencing factors produced a model for message appropriateness in health education in a multi-cultural developing community. The model firstly guidelines for effective health education, effective health communication, appropriate and effective media use, as well as for socio-cultural sensitivity. It also includes guidelines for practical issues such as appropriate message design and media acculturation. Due to the fact that appropriate health messages can be distinguished from inappropriate messages, the model also states guidelines for evaluating message appropriateness. A mechanism was designed to categorise the relative appropriateness of media for health education during the evaluation process. Following the model design, a theoretical application was made for health education messages on the Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) in two selected communities in the Western Cape. Possibilities for wider application of the model in other multicultural developing communities were indicated. The findings of this research support the initial hypothesis. Specific recommendations have been formulated and possibilities for further research were formulated.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Boodskappe vir gesondheidsopvoeding is n dinamiese verskynsel, want dit raak mense se gesondheid en welsyn op aile vlakke. Programme vir gesondheidsopvoeding misluk egter dikwels weens die ontoepaslikheid van mediaboodskappe. Die doel van hierdie navorsing was om die volgende hipotese te bevestig of verwerp, naamlik dat boodskappe vir gesondheidsopvoeding binne 'n multikulturele ontwikkelende gemeenskap eiesoortige kenmerke toon, wat deur spesifieke beginsels asook praktykriglyne vir verhoogde boodskaptoepaslikheid gerugsteun word. Die navorsing het in drie opeenvolgende fases verloop, naamlik n teoretiese ondersoek, 'n empiriese ondersoek en 'n modelontwerp. Die teoretiese komponent het gefokus op die grondslae van gesondheidsopvoeding, gesondheidsbevordering en gemeenskapsontwikkeling; didaktiese vertrekpunte vir boodskaptoepaslikheid in gesondheidsopvoeding; invloedsfaktore by gesondheidsopvoeding in In multikulturele ontwikkelende gemeenskap; mediatoepassings in gesondheidsopvoeding; asook aspekte van kommunikasie in gesondheidsopvoeding. Gesondheidsopvoeding hang ten nouste saam met gesondheidsbevordering en kan omskryf word as enige beplande leeraktiwiteit om ingeligte besluitneming oor gesondheid en siekte te verbeter. 'n Belangrike bevinding is dat boodskappe vir gesondheidsopvoeding teikengerig moet wees. Mediaboodskappe moet dus op individue, gesinne en gemeenskappe se behoeftes aan gesondheidsopvoeding gebaseer wees. Verskillende invloedsfaktore is bepalend vir suksesvolle gesondheidsopvoeding, onder andere die beginsels van toepaslike tegnologie asook die visuele geletterdheid en sosio-kulturele agtergrond van die teikengroep. Die spektrum toepaslike media vir gesondheidsopvoeding sluit eenvoudige oudiovisuele media en gevorderde elektroniese massamedia in, wat gebruik kan word om leerdoelwitte in verband met kennis, houdings, vaardighede en verandering van gesondheidsgedrag te bereik. Hierbenewens kan tradisionele media soos volksliedere en poppespel in ontwikkelende lande nie geignoreer word nie. 'n Voorvereiste vir boodskaptoepaslikheid is dat media by die geheel van 'n onderrigleersituasie geintegreer moet word. By implikasie is mediaseleksie 'n belangrike faktor wat suksesvolle onderrig en leer bepaal. Hierin is die kommunikasiekodes van elke individuele medium deurslaggewend, want suksesvolle leer word deur simboliese kodesisteme eerder as tegnologie op sigself bevorder. In die empiriese ondersoek is die belangrikste riglyne vir toepaslike boodskapkodering in gesondheidsopvoeding geidentifiseer en geprioritiseer. Daar is op grafiese-, fotografiese-, teksontwerp-, en oudiovisuele programontwerpriglyne asook riglyne vir sosio-kulturele kontekstualisering van boodskappe gefokus. Die resultate dui op n al-gemeen hoe korrelasie tussen die standpunte van mediakundiges en dieetkundiges ten opsigte van die belangrikste koderingsriglyne in die onderskeie mediakategoriee. Die teoretiese navorsing en empiriese ondersoek, tesame met 'n analise van sekere situasionele invloedsfaktore, het op 'n modelontwerp vir boodskaptoepaslikheid by gesondheidsopvoeding binne 'n multikulturele ontwikkelende gemeenskap in Suid Afrika uitgeloop. Die model stel riglyne vir doeltreffende gesondheidsopvoeding, , gesondheidskommunikasie, toepaslike en doeltreffende mediagebruik asook vir sosiokulturele sensitiwiteit. Met die oog op die praktyk sluit die model riglyne vir boodskapontwerp en media-akkulturasie in. Aangesien toepaslike gesondheidsboodskappe onderskei kan word van ontoepaslike boodskappe, is riglyne vir die evaluering van boodskaptoepaslikheid neergele. 'n Meganisme is gegenereer om die relatiewe toepaslikheid van media vir gesondheidsopvoeding tydens evaluering te klassifiseer. Uit diemodelontwerp het n teoretiese toepassing vir gesondheidsopvoedingboodskappe oor die Verworwe Immuniteitsgebrek Sind room (VIGS) en tuberkulose(TB) in twee geselekteerde gemeenskapPe van die Wes-Kaap gevolg. Die moontlikheid vir wyer toepassing in ander multikulturele ontwikkelende gemeenskappe is aangetoon. 'n ag genome die resultate van hierdie navorsing is die aanvanklike hipotese bevestig. Spesifieke aanbevelings het uit die navorsing voortgespruit en verdere navorsingsmoontlikhede is geformuleer.

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