Probes in HF metrology

Rossouw, Daniel Johannes (2010-12)

Thesis (MScEng (Electrical and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Flanged coaxial probes are widely used to conduct accurate, broadband permittivity measurements of various dielectric materials. A metrology study, discussed in [1], revealed that small perturbations in measured permittivity data, are due to escaping common-mode (CM) current that propagates onto exposed VNA feed cabling. This is not considered in published permittivity extraction algorithms, like the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) full-wave code that assumes an infinite flange radius. To characterise this effect we validate a finite volume time domain (FVTD) CST simulation model of an SMA coaxial probe, by probing sensitive E-fields in a metallic shielding cylinder, placed around it. For this process, electro-optic (EO) E-field sensors are considered and a Mach-Zehnder type sensor is designed. Manufacturing difficulties discontinues this approach, but the revisited extended centre conductor E-field probing technique proves successful. The technique entails a high dynamic range, two-port VNA measurement. Through CST we gain knowledge of the physics behind the CM-problem and the behaviour of fields around the coaxial probe. Different shielding environments are simulated to establish their ability to impede CM-current coupling onto measurement cabling. To study the CM-effect on extracted permittivity results, the investigation is extended to Short-Open-Load (SOL) calibrated face-plane measurements of dielectric solids. A CST model, which considers escaping CM-energy, is used to generate open circuit (OC) calibration coefficients and to serve as an independent extraction method. We inspect the effect of different shielding environments and through CST, extract accurate permittivity results for e00, to a degree not previously achieved for such systems. This allows comment on the infinite-flange-radius assumption of the NIST method and proves the significance of the CM-effect.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Geflensde koaksiale probes word algemeen in die praktyk gebruik om akkurate, wyeband permitiwiteitmetings van diëlektriese materiale te verrig. ’n Studie wat in [1] bespreek word, dui aan dat klein verskynsels in gemete resultate, verband hou met gemene-modus (GM) stroom, wat ontsnap en teenwoording is aan die buitekant van onbeskermde voerkabels. Hierdie verkynsel word nie deur huidige volgolf ekstraksie-algoaritmes, soos die van NIST wat ’n onëindige flensradius aanvaar, in ag geneem nie. Om die GM-effek te karakteriseer, verifieer ons ’n eindige-volume tyd-gebied CST simulasiemodel, deur sensitiewe metings binne ’n silidriese metaalskerm, wat om so ’n probe geplaas word. Vir hierdie meting word elektro-optiese E-veld probes eers oorweeg. In gevolg word ’n Mach-Zehnder-tipe probe ontwerp, maar vervaardigingsprobleme en tyd-oorwegings kniehalter hierdie benadering. Heroorweging van die verlengde koaksiale sentraalgeleier, E-veld-probe tegniek, wat hoë dinamiese bereik twee-poort netwerkanaliseerder metings behels, slaag uiteindelik in hierdie doel. CST maak dit nou moontlik om die GM stroomprobleem te simuleer en spesefieke veldgedrag te kan waarneem. Verskillende afskermingsmetodes se vermoë om GM-koppeling na kabels te beperk word ondersoek. Die GM studie word uitgebrei na SOL-gekalibreerde, flensvlakverwysde permitwiteitmetings van diëlektriese vastestowwe. ’n CST model, wat GM stroom in ag neem, word gebruik om oopgeslote kalibrasiekofisiënte te genereer en dien ook as ‘n alternatiewe permitiwiteit ekstraksiemetode. Die effek van die verskillende afskermingstegnieke word ondersoek en deur die CST metode te gebruik, word ’n aansienlike verbetering in akkuraatheid van e00 waardes verkry. Dit regverdig kommentaar oor die aannames wat in die NIST metode gemaak word en beklemtoon die belangrikheid om GM stroom in ag te neem.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/5425
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