Die selfkonsep van studente wat hakkel : 'n verkennende ondersoek

Louw, Karlien (2010-12)

Thesis (MEdPsych (Educational Psychology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Bibliography

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die verskynsel van hakkel word omgewe deur persoonlike belewenisse wat bydra tot die vorming van die selfkonsep van iemand wat hakkel. Die toenemende soeke na die oorsake, "behandeling" en "genesing" van hakkel lei waarskynlik tot die onderbeklemtoning van die wyse waarop die persoon sin maak van sy of haar hakkel. Holistiese ondersteuning fokus egter nie slegs op die hantering van hakkel nie, maar ook op die positiewe integrasie van hakkel in iemand se selfkonsep – ongeag die pyn of hartseer wat daarmee geassosieer word. Om dit te kan doen, word kennis benodig van die wyse waarop die verskillende dimensies van die persoon se selfkonsep tot uitdrukking kom. Die doel van hierdie studie was tweeledig van aard. Eerstens het dit gepoog om die selfkonsep van studente wat hakkel te verken en te beskryf deur middel van hulle belewing daarvan ten opsigte van die verskillende dimensies van die selfkonsep. Dit het aanleiding gegee tot 'n ruimer begrip van die wyse waarop die selfkonsep van die betrokke studente manifesteer in verskillende verhoudings. Tweedens het die studie ten doel gehad om meer holistiese wyses van ondersteuning te identifiseer en wat gevolglik gelei het tot die identifisering van sodanige ondersteuning binne die terapeutiese sowel as die onderrig- en leeromgewings. Ten einde hakkel as 'n menslike hoedanigheid te verstaan en te verduidelik, word van 'n kwalitatiewe benadering tot navorsing gebruik gemaak. Dit word ondersteun deur gefundeerde teorie as gekose navorsingsontwerp wat die induktiewe wyse van datagenerering en -analise beklemtoon. Die metodes van navorsing ten opsigte van datagenerering sluit in individuele onderhoude en 'n fokusgroep. Data is geanaliseer deur gebruik te maak van die konstante vergelykende metode. Die verkenning van die studente se selfkonsep op hierdie wyse het uiteindelik tot die identifisering van enkele determinante ten opsigte van intra- en interpersoonlike funksionering aanleiding gegee. Die twee prosesse van heling en verwonding betrokke in die vorming van die studente se selfkonsep illustreer hoe verhoudings tot die ondersteuning of selfs stigmatisering en gevolglike uitsluiting van hierdie studente bydra. iv Die verkenning van die verskillende dimensies van die selfkonsep van studente wat hakkel het die volgende aan die lig gebring: Dat die selfkonsep dien as uitdrukking van die studente se verband met hakkel op die drie verskillende vlakke van sielkundige funksionering, naamlik die: - Kognitiewe vlak: vervreemding van die outentieke self, persoonlike waarhede, transendensie en kongruensie - Affektiewe vlak: psigiese verwonding - Konatiewe vlak: kompensasie, isolasie en projeksie Spesifieke terapeutiese benaderinge kan moontlik heling bevorder by die student wie se selfkonsep broos blyk te wees weens die verwonding wat soms met hakkel gepaard gaan. Dit kan waarskynlik as 'n voorafgaande raamwerk dien vir die ontwikkeling van 'n enkele, meer omvattende behandelingsplan ter bevordering van 'n positiewe selfkonsep. Toeganklikheid ten opsigte van akademiese deelname vir studente wat hakkel behoort bevorder te word in 'n veilige en nie-bedreigende onderrig- en leeromgewing. Spesifieke wyses van ondersteuning in die konteks van die Universiteit Stellenbosch is voorgestel. Die uitsluiting van studente wat hakkel weens stigmatisering bring psigiese verwonding mee, wat gevolglik bydra tot die wyse waarop die student se selfkonsep tot uitdrukking kom. As navorser vertrou ek dat hierdie studie sal bydra tot 'n ruimer begrip van die selfkonsep van studente wat hakkel. Op so 'n wyse kan Opvoedkundige Sielkunde as vakgebied 'n agent van verandering wees, deurdat dit krities-reflekterende denke ten opsigte van die holistiese ondersteuning van studente wat hakkel, aanmoedig. Die teoreties gefundeerde gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings in hierdie tesis kan dien as kennisraamwerk vir toekomstige navorsing op hierdie gebied.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The phenomenon of stuttering encompasses personal experiences that contribute to the forming of the self-concept of somebody who stutters. The increased search for the causes, "treatment" and "curing" of stuttering probably leads to underemphasising the manner in which the person makes sense of his or her stuttering. However, holistic support focuses not only on dealing with stuttering, but also on the positive integration of stuttering in someone's self-concept – regardless of the pain or distress associated with it. To be able to do this, knowledge about the manner in which the various dimensions of the person's self-concept are expressed, is required. The aim of this study was of dual purpose. Firstly it attempted to explore and describe the self-concepts of students who stutter by means of their experiences of stuttering with regard to the different dimensions thereof. This has lead to a better understanding of the way in which the self-concept of the students concerned becomes manifested in different relationships. Secondly this study aimed to identify more holistic ways of support which has lead to the identification of such ways in both the therapeutic and teaching and learning environments. To understand and explain stuttering as a human quality, a qualitative approach to research is used. It is supported by grounded theory as selected research design, which emphasises the inductive method of data generation and analysis. The methods of research with regard to data generation include individual interviews and a focus group. Data is analysed by using the constant comparative method. Exploring the students' self-concepts in this way eventually led to the identification of a few determinants with regard to intra- and interpersonal functioning. The two processes of healing and suffering involved in students' self-concepts illustrate how relationships contribute to the support or even stigmatisation and consequential exclusion of these students. The exploration of the different dimensions of the self-concept of students who stutter brought the following to light: That the self-concept serves as a manifestation of the students’ relationship with stuttering on the three different levels of psychological functioning, namely the: vi - Cognitive level: alienation of authentic self, personal truths, transendence and congruency - Affective level: psychological distress (suffering) - Conative level: compensation, isloation, projection Specific therapeutic approaches can possibly enhance healing in the student whose self-concept seems to be brittle due to the psychological distress or suffering that sometimes goes with stuttering. It can probably serve as a preliminary framework for developing a single, more comprehensive treatment plan to enhance a positive self-concept. Accessibility with regard to academic participation for students who stutter should be enhanced in a safe and non-threatening teaching and learning environment. Specific ways of support in the context of the Stellenbosch University are suggested. The exclusion of students who stutter due to stigmatisation causes psychological suffering, which consequently contributes to the manner in which the student's self-concept is expressed. As a researcher, I trust that this study will contribute to a broader understanding of the self-concept of students who stutter. In such a way, Educational Psychology as a subject field could be an agent for change by supporting critical-reflective thinking with regard to the holistic support of students who stutter. The theoretically grounded conclusions and recommendations in this thesis could serve as a framework of knowledge for future research in this field.

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