Modified polysaccharide-based particles for strengthening paper

Terblanche, Johannes C (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-12)

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The ongoing trend in papermaking industries is to lower production costs by increasing the low cost filler content in the sheets. However, the disruption of inter-fibre bonding is accompanied by a deterioration of paper stiffness and mechanical properties if filler content exceeds 18 wt%. Polysaccharide solutions, such as starch, are often used as a low cost biodegradable additive to improve internal sheet strength when added to the wet-end of production. The amount of starch that can be added is however limited as only a small percentage will be retained in the paper web. A dual additive multifunctional polysaccharide system was developed to allow higher filler loading levels without detrimental deterioration in paper properties. In order to achieve a larger surface area for fibre/filler interaction and to reduce drainage losses, at least one of these additives was in particulate form. Anionic, cationic, and unsaturated derivatives were prepared using sodium monochloroacetate, 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride, and allyl bromide, respectively. The degree of substitution was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and back titration methods and the interaction of the ionic modified derivatives with paper components was determined using fluorescence microscopy. Anionic modified polysaccharide particles were prepared using techniques such as macrogel ultrasonification, water-in-water emulsification, and in-situ cross-linking and carboxymethylation of granular starch. A process of adding sequential layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layers onto the filler particles was also investigated. A novel approach of preparing modified particles with tailored size and distribution using microfluidics was studied and modelled using response surface methodology. Hand sheets were prepared using the dual additive system and improvements in stiffness, tear resistance, breaking length, and folding endurance were observed. The modified granular maize starch particles had a pre-eminent effect on improving stiffness at higher filler loadings (14% improvement at 30 wt% filler loading), while bulky particles prepared using microfluidics showed a more consistent improvement (between 6% and 10%) across the loading range. Overall improvements gained by the introduction of multi-layered soluble polymers onto fillers suggest that the introduction of nanotechnology to the papermaking process should be of potential benefit to the industry. Furthermore, the dual additive system developed during the course of this study should also be tested on a continuous pilot plant papermaking process.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die papierindustrie neig voortdurend daarna om produksiekostes te verlaag deur die persentasie lae koste vulstof wat gebruik word te verhoog. Aangesien die vulstof vesel kontak belemmer, gaan hoër vlakke (> 18 wt%) egter gepaard met ’n verlaging in papier styfheid en meganiese eienskappe. Polisakkaried oplossings, soos byvoorbeeld stysel, word dikwels gebruik as lae koste vergaanbare bymiddel om papier intern te versterk wanneer dit voor die vormingsproses bygevoeg word. Slegs ’n beperkte hoeveelheid stysel word egter behou in die papier matriks en oormatige oplossings ontsnap tydens dreinering in die afvalwater. ’n Dubbele multi-funksionele polisakkaried bymiddelsisteem was ontwikkel wat ongewensde verwakking in papiereienskappe verminder tydens vulstof verhogings. Ten minste een van die bymiddels was in partikelvorm om sodoende ’n groter oppervlak te bied vir vesel/vulstof interaksie en om dreineringsverliese te verminder. Anioniese, kationiese, sowel as onversadigde derivate was berei deur onderskeidelik gebruik te maak van natrium monochloroasetaat, 3-chloro-2-hidroksiepropieltrimetielammonium chloried, en alliel bromied. Die graad van substitutiese was bepaal met behulp van 1H-KMR spektroskopie sowel as titrasie tegnieke terwyl die ioniese interaksie van die gemodifiseerde stysels met die papierkomponente ondersoek was met behulp van fluoressensie mikroskopie. Anioniese polisakkaried partikels was berei met tegnieke soos makro-jel ultrasonifikasie, water-in-water emulsifikasie, en in-situ kruisbinding en karboksiemetielasie van stysel granulate. ’n Proses was ook ondersoek waar vulstof partikels omhul was in verskeie lae poliëlektroliet oplossings. ’n Nuwe benadering was toegepas waar gemodifiseerde partikels met voorafbepaalde grootte en verspreiding berei is deur gebruik te maak van mikrofluïdika en gemodelleer met behulp van oppervlakte ontwerp metodeleer. Papier toetse was uitgevoer met die bymiddelsisteem en algehele verbetering in styfheid, skeurweerstand, breeklengte, en voulydsaamheid is waargeneem. Die gemodifiseerde stysel granulate het die grootste verbetering in styfheid by hoë vulstofladings getoon (14% verbetering by 30 wt% vulstoflading) terwyl die groter mikrofluïdika-bereide partikels algehele verbetering (tussen 6% en 10%) getoon het oor die hele vulstoflading reeks. Die verbeteringe in styfheid sowel as meganiese eienskappe van papier voorberei met poliëlektroliet omhulde vulstof toon dat aanwending van nanotegnologie in hierdie bedryf potensieel voordelig kan wees. Opskalering van die polisakkaried bymiddels ontwikkel gedurende hierdie studie behoort uitgevoer te word vir verdere toetse op ’n kontinue papier loodsaanleg.

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