'n Opname van die bewegingsontwikkelingskenmerke van grondslagfase leerders in die Stellenbosch omgewing

Africa, Eileen K. (Eileen Katherine) (2004-03)

Thesis (MScSportSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Physical activity is an integral part of children's lives. It makes an essential contribution to their physical, psychological and social well-being. Often, it is through movement and active play that children learn to discover themselves. This movement and play sometimes serves as a medium for communication. Unfortunately, various research studies show that children are not active enough and lead ever increasing sedentary lifestyles and these lifestyles lead to various types of hypo-kinetic diseases. Technology, as well as the phasing out of structured physical education in schools, are aspects that are responsible for the decrease in activity levels of children. The primary aim of this study was to determine if present-day children's (Grades 1 - 3) physical abilities have improved or worsened over the years. Movement tests from Katzenellenbogen (1976) were used to test movement abilities of these children. Adapted questionnaires from Van Deventer (1999) were used to construct the lifestyle patterns of learners and to get information concerning movement programmes from teachers at schools. The sample population (N=372) was selected from four schools (two previously disadvantaged and two former Model C schools) in the Stellenbosch area. The tests evaluated, inter alia the following, velocity, velocity and power, power, velocity and accuracy, accuracy and precision. Children from the previously disadvantaged and former Model C schools, as well as age and sex were compared. A comparison with the 1976 study of Katzenellebogen was also done. The latter study only involved girls and was undertaken only at White schools. The coding of the variable data was done in a computer format, coded and statistically analysed. Averages are compared through the Analyses of Variance (ANOVA). From the results of the study, it can be concluded that children at the former Model C schools fared better in most of the tests and it is evident that boys generally are more active than girls. As far as the comparison with the 1976 study is concerned, present-day girls fared worse in almost all the tests. The weight of the 9 year old girls increased by as much as 7.2 kg. This study can therefore be a starting point for further study attempting to combat the tendency of inactivity amongst the youth of today.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Fisieke aktiwiteit is 'n integrale deel van kinders se lewens. Dit maak 'n essensiële bydrae tot hul fisieke, psigologiese en sosiale welstand. Dit is dikwels deur beweging en aktiewe spel wat kinders leer om hulself te ontdek. Hierdie beweging en spel dien ook soms as 'n medium vir kommunikasie. Ongelukkig toon verskeie navorsing dat kinders nie aktief genoeg is nie en al hoe meer sedentêre leefstyle handhaaf, wat lei tot allerhande hipokinetiese siektetoestande. Tegnologie, asook die uitfassering van gestruktureerde Liggaamlike Opvoeding in skole is aspekte wat verantwoordelik gehou word vir die afname in aktiwiteitsvlakke van kinders. Die primêre doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal of hedendaagse kinders (Graad 1 tot 3) se bewegingsvermoëns oor die jare heen verbeter of verswak het. Bewegingstoetse uit Katzenellenbogen (1976) is gebruik om bewegingsvermoëns van die kinders te toets. Aangepaste vraelyste uit Van Deventer (1999) is gebruik om die leefstylpatrone van leerders vas te stel en om inligting aangaande bewegingsprogramme in die skole by onderwysers te bekom. Die proefpersone (N=372) is uit vier skole (twee voorheenbenadeelde [VB]- en twee voormalige Model-C [VMC]-skole) in die Stellenbosch omgewing geselekteer. Die toetse het die volgende veranderlikes gemeet: snelheid; snelheid en dryfkrag; dryfkrag; snelheid en akkuraatheid; akkuraatheid en presiesheid; getoets. Kinders van VB- en VMC-skole, ouderdomme en geslagte is met mekaar vergelyk. Daar is ook 'n vergelyking met die 1976-studie van Katzenellenbogen getref. Die 1976-studie van Katzenellenbogen het slegs dogters ingesluit en is slegs by Blanke skole onderneem. Die veranderlikes se datametings is in rekenaarformaat gekodeer en statisties verwerk. Gemiddeldes is vergelyk deur middel van analise van variansie (ANOVA). Uit die resultate van die studie kan tot die gevolgtrekking gekom word dat kinders by die VMC-skole beter in meeste van die toetse gevaar het en dit blyk ook dat seuns oor die algemeen meer aktief is as dogters. Wat die vergelyking met die 1976-studie betref, het hedendaagse dogters swakker gevaar in byna al die toetse. Die 9-jarige dogters het ook met soveel as 7.2 kg in gewig vermeerder. Hierdie studie kan dus as 'n beginpunt dien vir verdere studie in 'n poging om die tendens van onaktiwiteit onder vandag se jongmense te bekamp.

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