Synthesis and investigation of smart nanoparticles

Koen, Yolande (2010-12)

Thesis (MSc (Chemistry and Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The use of various ‘smart materials’ (briefly meaning materials that respond to a change in their environment) is currently of interest to both academics and industry. The primary aim of the current study was to entrap photochromic (PC) dyes in miniemulsions, as a means to improve their fatigue resistance, thus synthesizing smart nanoparticles. In the coatings industry the use of aqueous systems is becoming a common requirement for health and environmental reasons. Miniemulsion entrapment allows the direct dispersion of PC dyes into aqueous systems while allowing for the opportunity to tailor-make the host matrix in order to obtain a suitable PC response and improved fatigue resistance. The optimal instrument set-up required to establish the PC response of films of the so-called smart nanoparticles (i.e. PC miniemulsions) was determined. A UV-Vis instrument with a chip-type UV LED mounted inside for activation of the samples provided PC response results. A tungsten lamp with filter provided deactivation of the samples. A stable butyl methacrylate (BMA) miniemulsion formulation was established by conducting a design of experiments. A chromene and spironapthoxazine (SNO) PC dye were entrapped in the BMA miniemulsion. A hindered amine light stabiliser (HALS) was also entrapped with the SNO dye in the BMA miniemulsion to further improve the fatigue resistance. The following PC properties of the smart nanoparticles films were evaluated: colourability, thermal decay rate, half-life and fatigue resistance. To compare results with conventional systems, a BMA solution polymer was prepared. The SNO dye and different concentrations of the HALS were mixed with the BMA solution polymer. In comparison to the SNO smart nanoparticles the chromene smart nanoparticles films had lower colourability, but better fatigue resistance. Incorporating HALS at levels of 0.5–2% in the BMA miniemulsion with PC dye did not lead to any significant improvement in fatigue resistance, yet films of the BMA solution polymer showed some improvement. SNO dye incorporated at 1% gave similar colourability in both miniemulsion and in solution polymer, yet the fatigue resistance of the films of the PC miniemulsions was much better.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van verskeie “slim materiale’ (kortliks beskryf as materiale wat reageer op `n verandering in hul omgewing) is tans van belang vir beide akademici en die industrie. Die hoofdoel van hierdie studie was om miniemulsietegnologie te gebruik om fotochromiese (FC) kleurstowwe vas te vang, vir die sintese van slim nanopartikels, om sodoende die weerstand teen afgematheid te verbeter. In die verfindustrie word die gebruik van waterbasissisteme meer algemeen weens gesondheids- en omgewingsredes. Die gebruik van miniemulsie sisteme om materiale vas te vang maak dit moontlik om FC kleurstowwe direk in waterbasissisteme te meng. Die sintese van `n unieke gasheer matriks word benodig om die optimum FC verandering te toon en weerstand teen afgematheid te verbeter. Om die FC verandering van die sogenaamde slim nanopartikel films (d.w.s. FC miniemulsies) te ondersoek was `n gepaste instrumentele opstelling nodig. Dit is vasgestel dat `n UV-Vis instrument waarin `n skyfie-tipe UV LED gemonteer is vir aktivering van die monsters, reproduseerbare resultate gegee het. Die monsters is gedeaktiveer deur gebruik te maak van `n tungsten lig met ‘n filter. `n Eksperimentele ontwerp is toegepas om `n stabiele butielmetakrielaat (BMA) miniemulsie formulasie te verkry. `n ‘Chromene’ en ‘spironapthoxazine’ (SNO) FC kleurstof is in die BMA miniemulsie vasgevang tesame met `n verhinderde amien ligstabiliseerder (VALS) om die weerstand teen afgematheid verder te verbeter. Die volgende FC eienskappe van die slim nanopartikels is gemeet: kleurintensiteit, tempo van termiese verwering, half-lewe en weerstand teen afgematheid. `n BMA polimeeroplossing is berei om resultate mee te vergelyk. Die SNO kleurstof en verskillende konsentrasies van die VALS is met die BMA polimeeroplossing gemeng. In vergelyking met die slim SNO nanopartikels het die intelligente chromene nanopartikelfilms `n swakker kleurintensiteit gehad, maar `n hoër weerstand teen afgematheid. Die gebruik van 0.5–2% VALS in die BMA miniemulsie met FC kleurstof het minimale verbetering in weerstand teen afgematheid getoon, maar daar was wel `n beduidende verbetering in die geval van films met FC kleurstof in `n BMA polimeeroplossing. Byvoeging van 1% SNO kleurstof in `n BMA miniemulsie of polimeeroplossing het dieselfde kleurintensiteit gelewer, maar die weerstand teen afgematheid van die FC miniemulsie was baie beter.

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