Nutritional factors associated with oral lesions in HIV disease and TB infection

Phooko, Puleng M. (Puleng Mpopi) (2003-12)

Thesis (Mnutr)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Problem Definition: In the context of HIV/AIDS malnutrition is almost universal among children, and of the adverse effects of Protein Energy Malnutrition, the most frequent seems to be the occurrence of opportunistic infections with micro-organisms such as oral Candida. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of children with oral complications in relation to HIV/AIDS as well as the effects of the oral lesions on nutritional status. Subjects/setting: The subjects of study were 24 children co-infected with TB and HIV who were admitted consecutively to the paediatric ward of Brooklyn Chest Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The nutritional status of the children was assessed over a maximum period of six months by nutrient intake, anthropometric status, and by biochemical parameters and clinical and oral examination on admission and at discharge from hospital. Results: Children with HIVand TB infection presenting with or without oral lesions were similarly malnourished throughout the period of hospitalization. There was no improvement in the nutritional status as indicated by height and weight measurements. Throughout the time of hospitalization, 7% of the children had a combination of stunting, underweight and wasting. Average nutrient intake was not found to be higher than the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) in any of the children. At the time of admission to hospital and at discharge, carbohydrate intake provided most of the daily energy (36% and 42%, the difference not being statistically significant). There was a significant increase in the intake of energy (p=O.04) and a decrease in total fat intake (p=O.03) at discharge. Although not significant, mean protein intake at admission was higher than at time of discharge. Selected sub-optimal biochemical values were prevalent among the children studied, with 45% and 41% showing low serum albumin values «2.9g/dL) at the time of admission and at discharge respectively. Both on admission and at discharge, 38% of the children had Haemoglobin levels below normal values. Serum ferritin levels below normal values were present in almost all the children and the trend was similar for the prevalence of low zinc values. Sub-normal plasma retinol was present in 79% of the children at time of admission, while only 21% had deficient values at time of discharge (p=O.03). On admission, 29% of the children had vitamin evalues below the normal range whereas at time of discharge 17% of the children had values below normal (p=O.04). A total of 29% children presented with oral complications on admission. These included oral herpes, oral thrush, reflux, bleeding gums and stomatitis/angular cheilosis. Two children were asymptomatically colonized with Candida of the oral cavity. Mean total protein intake was higher (p=O.057) among the children who were not diagnosed with oral complications. Conclusions: This study confirmed that malnutrition is not only a common and serious problem associated with HIVand AIDS, but also that nutritional problems cannot be dealt with in isolation where Opportunistic Infections are present. The severity of malnutrition depends on various factors including oral complications. Additionally, appropriate management and treatment of tuberculosis did not appear to affect the nutritional status significantly. Recommendations: On the basis of these findings, and because of the increased risk of growth failure and developmental delays, children should be referred for full nutritional evaluation as soon as possible after diagnosis of HIV -infection. In addition, there is a need for intervention programmes to identify the immediate underlying causes of malnutrition and the ways in which such causes interact, in order to ensure that such interventions increase the resistance of HIV infected infants and children to the disease.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Probleemdefiniëring: Binne die konteks van MIVNIGS is wanvoeding bykans universeelonder kinders en van die nadelige effekte van proteïen energie wanvoeding is die voorkoms van opportunistiese infeksies (Ol) met mikro-organismes soos orale candida die algemeenste. Doelwit: Die doel van dié studie was om die voedingstatus van kinders met orale komplikasies in verhouding tot MIVNIGS en die effek van orale letsels op voedingstatus, te bepaal. Proefpersone/omgewing: 'n Groep van 24 kinders, met beide tuberkulose en MIVNIGSinfeksie, wat agtereenvolgend in die kindersaal van Brooklyn Bors-Hospitaal in Kaapstad, Suid- Afrika opgeneem is, is bestudeer. Vir 'n periode van ses maande is die kinders se voedingstatus geassesseer deur middel van voedingstofinname, antropometriese status en biochemiese parameters met opname in en ontslag uit die hospitaal. Kliniese en orale ondersoeke was op elke kind uitgevoer met opname sowel as ontslag. Resultate: Kindres met HIV en tuberkulose, met of sonder orale letsels, het soortgelyke wanvoeding tydens hospitalisering ervaar het. Volgens antropometriese metings was daar geen verbetering in die voedingstatus nie. 'n Kombinasie van belemmerde groei, ondergewig en uittering het in 7% van die kinders tydens hospitalisering voorgekom. Nie een van die gemiddeldes van die voedingstowwe was hoër as die Aanbevole daaglikse toelatings (ADT) in enige van die kinders wat bestudeer is nie. Met opname sowel as ontslag, was koolhidraatinname die grootste energieverskaffer met onderskeidelik 36% en 42% (alhoewel die verskil nie statisties beduidend was nie). Daar was 'n beduidende toename in energie-inname (p=O.04) en 'n afname in totale vetinname (p=O.03) met ontslag. Alhoewel nie beduidend nie, was die gemiddelde proteïeninname hoër met ontslag. Die voorkoms van geselekteerde sub-optimale biochemiese waardes met toelating en ontslag wys dat onderskeidelik 45% en 41% van die kinders lae serum albumienwaardes «2.9g/dL) getoon het. Subnormale plasma retinol het in 79% van die kinders met toelating voorgekom, terwyl slegs 21% gebrekkige waardes (p=O.03) met ontslag getoon het. Tydens opname, sowel as met ontslag, was 38% van die kinders se hemoglobienvlakke laer as die normale. Serum ferritienvlakke was amper by al die kinders laer as die normale vlakke te bespeur, met sinkvlakke wat op soortgelyke lae vlakke voorkom. Met toelating was 29% van die kinders se Vitamien C-waardes laer as normaal en met ontslag was sowat 17% se waardes steeds laer as die normaal (p=O.04). Met toelating het 29% van die kinders orale komplikasies getoon. Ingeslote hierby was orale herpes, orale sproei, refluks, bloeiende tandvleise en stomatis/ angulêre cheilose. Slegs twee kinders was asimptomaties met orale Candida van die mondholte gediagnoseer. Die gemiddelde proteïeninname was hoër (p=O.057) onder die kindres wat nie orale komplikasies getoon het nie. Gevolgtrekking: Hierdie studie bevestig dat wanvoeding me net 'n algemene en ernstige probleem is wat met MIV en VIGS geassosieer word nie, maar ook in die teenwoordigheid van opportunistiese infeksies, die voedingsprobleem nie in isolasie gehanteer kan word nie. Die graad van wanvoeding hang af van ander faktore, insluitende orale komplikasies. Voldoende behandeling van TB het ook nie 'n beduidende effek op voedingstatus gehad nie. Aanbevelings: Op hierdie bevindings gebaseer, en as gevolg van die verhoogde risiko VIr belemmerde groei en vertraagde ontwikkeling wat al die liggaamstelsels van MIV -positiewe kinders affekteer, moet kinders so gou as moontlik nadat die MIV-infeksie gediagnoseer is, vir volle voedingsevaluasies verwys word. Daarmee gepaardgaande is daar 'n behoefte aan programme wat die onmiddellike onderliggende oorsake van wanvoeding identifiseer, asook om interaksie van hierdie oorsake met HIV vas te stel, ten einde intervensies wat weerstand van HIVkinders en-babas verbeter, positieftoe te pas.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53528
This item appears in the following collections: