n Ekonomiese perspektief op bemagtiging : 'n herdefiniëring van welvaartskeppende institusies

Kooy, Zacharias Wilhelmus (2003)

Thesis (MComm) -- Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The economic growth that can have a real impact on poverty or the empowerment problem in South Africa remains unrealised. A microeconomic perspective on the empowerment problem in South Africa is given in the thesis by taking a New Institutional Economic (NIE) stance. The NIE perspective reveals that the development problem at microlevel in South Africa is also derived from the collective character of the environment in which persons targetted for empowerment often find themselves. The point of departure of the analysis is that in order to understand what empowerment is supposed to entail, the firm as the institution which generates products and services, and how it connects with the rest of the economy needs to be understood. This understanding is formed by setting the firm against the economic problem, namely people's infinite needs in the presence of scarcity and the potensial for opportunism that the situation creates. Transaction costs become the explaining variable of the firm against the backdrop of the economic problem and by distinguishing it from input costs. The understanding of the institutions that addresses the economic problem results in empowerment being defined as gaining a tradable asset and that the person who gains the asset has the ability to trade it in a sustainable manner, i.e. the person has the ability to lower transaction costs to competitive levels. From this it follows that empowerment cannot be separated from the environment, for the right of exclusion implied by a tradable asset needs to be derived from the community. The institutions that address the economic problem are therefore compared with the institutional environment in which South Africans targetted for empowerment find themselves. In this manner a more complete picture of the empowerment problem in South Africa is created. More complete, because not only friction in the market or discrimination under the previous regime is presented as explanation for underdevelopment. The insights derived from the analysis lead to a framework which can gauge the empowerment potential of a empowerment scheme, a clear picture of worker participation's empowerment potential and critique of the current land reform programme. The thesis distinguishes between empowerment and wealth-generating empowerment, with the last requiring as bottom line a methaphysical framework which leaves a community grateful.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ekonomiese groei wat die armoede- of bemagtigingsprobleem in Suid-Afrika daadwerklik kan aanspreek, blyonverwesenlik. 'n Mikroperspektief word op die bemagtigingsprobleem in Suid-Afrika gewerp deur 'n Nuwe Institusionele Ekonomie (NIE)-inslag in die verhandeling te volg. Uit die perspektief blyk dit dat die ontwikkelingsprobleem op mikrovlak III Suid-Afrika ontleen word ook aan die kollektiewe karakter van die omgewing waarin persone wat geteiken word VIr bemagtiging hulself dikwels bevind. Die analise se uitgangspunt is om te begryp wat bemagtiging veronderstel is om te wees, die onderneming as institusie wat produkte en dienste skep en hoe dit met die ekonomie skakel, verstaan moet word. Die begrip word geskep deur die onderneming te plaas teen die agtergrond van die ekonomiese probleem, naamlik mense se oneindige behoeftes te midde van skaarsheid en die potensiaal vir opportunisme wat dit skep. Transaksiekoste word die verklarende veranderlike van die onderneming teen die agtergrond van die ekonomiese probleem, en deur dit van insetkoste te onderskei. Uit die begrip van die institusies wat die ekonomiese probleem aanspreek, blyk dit dat bemagtiging vereis dat 'n persoon 'n verhandelbare bate besit en die vermoë het om die bate op In volhoubare wyse te ruil - transaksiekoste tot mededingende vlakke kan verlaag. Die definisie van bemagtiging maak dit onlosmaaklik van die omgewing omdat die reg van uitsluiting wat In verhandelbare bate impliseer, ontleen moet word aan die omgewing. Die institusies wat die ekonomiese probleem aanspreek, word daarom vergelyk met die institusionele omgewing waarin Suid-Afrikaners wat geteiken word vir bemagtiging hul bevind. Op die manier word 'n vollediger beeld van die bemagtigingsprobleem in Suid-Afrika geskep. Vollediger, omdat nie net stramhede in die mark, of diskriminasie onder die vorige bedeling as verklaring van onderontwikkeling voorgehou word nie. Die insigte uit die analise lei tot In evalueringsraamwerk wat bemagtigingsaksies se potensiaal kan peil, 'n uitklaring van deelnemende bestuur se bemagtigingspotensiaal en kritiek op die huidige grondhervormingsprogram. Die verhandeling onderskei tussen bemagtiging en welvaartskeppende bemagtiging met laasgenoemde wat onderlê word deur 'n metafisiese raamwerk wat In gemeenskap tot dankbaarheid stem.

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