Genetic engineering and evaluation of Aspergillus niger for heterologous polysaccharase production

Rose, Shaunita Hellouise (2003-03)

Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Cellulose and hemicellulose represents the two most abundant groups of renewable polysaccharides known to man. Apart from their presence in plant material, they also contribute to a significant portion of inexpensive readily available material, such as wastes and bypro ducts from forestry / agricultural origin. The chemical composition of plant material varies, but the biomass content consists of approximately 75% carbohydrate polymers (cellulose and hemicellulose) and 25% lignin. The enzymes required for the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose are collectively called cellulases and hemicellulases. These enzymes have a broad spectrum of industrial applications including the production of fuel ethanol through fermentations, reducing the amount of chlorine required for bleaching in the pulp and paper industry, increasing dough volume in the baking industry, improving digestion and nutritional value of animal feed, increasing clarification and enhancing the filterability of wine, beer and fruit juice, etc. Therefore, a large potential market exists for cellulases and hemicellulases provided their production is economical and the product, authentic. Aspergilli occur in a wide variety of habitats including soil, stored food and feed products and decaying vegetation. The advantages for using A. niger as host for heterologous enzyme production include good protein secretion, industrial fermentation technology dating as far back as 1919, being a non-pathogenic fungus with GRAS status, no special substrate or cultivation requirements, FDA approval of numerous enzymes (homologous and heterologous) produced, etc. In this study an Aspergillus expression vector was constructed using the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (gpdp) of A. niger and the glucoamylase terminator (glaAT) of Aspergillus awamori. The cDNA copies of the eg! and xyn2 genes of Trichoderma reesei, cbhl-4 of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, man! of Aspergillus aculeatus and xyn3 of Aspergillus kawachii were introduced into the expression vector, respectively. All the plasmids were co-transformed with plasmid p3SR2 to A. niger and transformants selected for stable plasmid integration into the genome of the host. The recombinant enzymes EgI, Xyn2, Cbhl-4, Man! and XynC were successfully expressed and secreted at activity levels of 2300, 8000, 500, 6000 and 900 nkatlml, respectively. The enzymes were produced as functional entities and were subsequently characterized. The EgI, Xyn2 and ManI were evaluated as feed additives for the possible use in the animal feed industry. Improved biomass gain was observed with in vivo studies on poultry. With the possible mass production of heterologous enzymes in mind, a simple medium had to be devised for their inexpensive production. Molasses medium (available from the South African sugar industry) was therefore evaluated and the cultivation conditions optimized for it's possible use as cultivation substrate for A. niger. The evaluation was done on the grounds of EgI and Xyn2 activity produced which was monitored over time. This study highlighted the possible use of A. niger for the heterologous production of enzymes, the use of industrial substrate for cultivation and paved the way for the high level expression of industrially important genes at low cost and a positive environmental impact.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sellulose en hemisellulose verteenwoordig die twee vollopste herwinbare polisakkariede bekend. Behalwe vir hul teenwoordigheid in plantmateriaal, dra hulle ook by tot 'n beduidende fraksie van goedkoop, maklik bekombare materiaal soos afval- en byprodukte van bosbou I landbou oorsprong. Soos te verwagte, varieër die chemiese samestelling van die plantmateriaal, maar die biomassa-inhoud bestaan uit naastenby 25% lignien en 75% koolhidraatpolimere (sellulose and hemicellulose). Die ensieme benodig vir die afbraak van sellulose en hemisellulose staan gesamentlik as sellulases en hemisellulases bekend. Hierdie ensieme het 'n breë spektrum van industriële toepassings insluitende die produksie van brandstofalkohol d.m.v. fermentasies, vermindering in die hoeveelheid chloor benodig vir die bleikproses in die pulp-en-papier industrie, toename in deegvolume in die bakkersindustrie, verbetering van verteerbaarheid en verhoging van voedingswaarde van dierevoer, toename in verheldering en verbeterde filtreerbaarheid van wyn, bier en vrugtesap, ens. Dus bestaan daar 'n groot potensiële mark vir sellulases en hemisellulases, mits hul produksie ekonomies en die produk outentiek is. Aspergilli kom in 'n wye verskeidenheid van omgewings voor, insluitende grond, gestoorde voedsel- en voerprodukte asook ontbindende plante materiaal. Die voordele vir die gebruik van A. niger as gasheer vir heteroloë ensiemproduksie sluit in 'n goeie proteïen produseerder, industriële fermentasietegnologie dateer sover terug as 1919, 'n nie-patogeniese fungus met GRAS-status, benodig geen spesiale substrate of kwekingskondisies nie, FDA goedkeuring vir 'n groot aantal ensieme (homoloog sowel as heteroloog) wat reeds geproduseer word, ens. In hierdie studie is 'n Aspergillus uitdrukkingsvektor gekonstrueer deur van die konstitutiewe gliseraldehied-3-fosfaat dehidrogenase promoter (gpdp) van A. niger en die glukoamilase termineerder (glaAT) van Aspergillus awamori gebruik te maak. Die cDNA kopiee van die die eg! en xyn2 van Trichoderma reesei, cbhl-4 van Phanerochaete chrysosporium, man! van Aspergillus aculeatus en die xynC van Aspergillus kawachii was onderskeidelik na die uitdrukkingsplasmied oorgedra. Alle plasmiede is gesamentlik met die p3 SR2 plasmied na A. niger getransformeer en vir stabiele integrasie in die gasheergenoom geselekteer. Die rekombinante ensieme Egl, Xyn2, Cbhl-4, Manl en Xyn3 is suksesvol uitgedruk en teen aktiviteitsvlakke van 2300, 8000, 500, 6000 en 900 nkat/ml, onderskeidelik uitgeskei. Die ensieme is as funksionele entiteite geproduseer en vervolgens gekaraktiriseer. Die Egl, Xyn2 en Manl is as voertoevoegings vir die moontlike gebruik in die dierevoerindustrie geëvalueer. Verbeterde biomassa toename is in die in vivo studie op pluimvee waargeneem. Met die moontlikheid van grootskaalse heteroloë ensiemproduksie in gedagte, moes 'n eenvoudige substraat vir hul goedkoop produksie gevind word. Molasse medium (verkrygbaar vanaf die Suid Afrikaanse suiker industrie) was derhalwe geëvalueer en die kwekingskondisies geoptimiseer vir die moontlike gebruik as kwekingssubstraat vir A. niger. Vir die evaluasie is die Egl en Xyn2 aktiwiteite onder verskillende toestande geproduseer en oor tyd gemonitor. Hierdie studie beklemtoon die moontlike gebruik van A. niger vir heteroloë produksie van ensieme, die gebruik van industriële substrate as kwekingsmedium en baan die weg vir ekonomiese, hoëvlakuitdrukking van industrieelbelangrike ensieme met 'n positiewe implikasie op die omgewing.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53437
This item appears in the following collections: