Entrepreneurial development through non-formal adult education and skills training in a rural community

Perold, Jana (2003-04)

Thesis (Master of Consumer Science)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In recent years unemployment figures in South Africa have reached alarming proportions. Many people do not have any form of income, and many others rely on irregular incomes from seasonal work. Education of adults has been highlighted as a possibility for teaching people various skills, which they could apply to generate an income for themselves. This research was conducted by following a participatory action research method to determine whether a nonformal adult education programme would assist individuals in generating an income. The literature review to support the research conducted included a discussion on poverty, rural areas and their development, and the relevance of entrepreneurial development for these areas. From here, the focus of the literature review moved to that of adult education as applied in training programmes. Participatory Action Research (PAR) and its role in a nonformal adult education programme is discussed, followed by a discussion of empowerment. The monitoring and evaluation of these programmes are also described. The Development and Advancement of Rural Entrepreneurship (DARE) is a programme that was launched in 2000 by the Department of Consumer Science: Foods, Clothing, Housing at the University of Stellenbosch. The main focus of this programme is the assistance given to rural communities to assist them in addressing the problem of unemployment and poverty, by providing support and training to potential local entrepreneurs. The rural town of Montagu was identified to conduct a nonformal adult education programme, focusing on skills training and entrepreneurial development of interested individuals in the community. The research period lasted 14 months. The programme itself consisted of different projects that concentrated on skills training suitable for income generation. People from the community were invited to attend the programme, making all participation voluntary. A PAR approach to present training skills was followed. Each PAR cycle consisted of four stages, namely planning, action, observation, reflection, as well as the revised plan which forms the first phase of the next plan. This approach ensures maximum involvement of participants. Empowerment levels of participants were measured using a standardised questionnaire with a pre- and post- test design. One of the PAR cycles included a five-day business course. Different aspects of entrepreneurship were addressed during the programme and eventually all the skills were combined and implemented to assist in the generation of income. Data of the empowerment levels of participants, and general information on the participants and their evaluation of the programme are documented as case studies. This data was also used to evaluate the success of the programme. The analysis of the data clearly shows that there was a need for skills development and entrepreneurial development in this rural area. Participants were eager to take part in the programme and to apply their skills in the market place where they displayed the skills they have acquired. Those participants who completed the programme all demonstrated an increase in their empowerment levels, the most significant increase on micro level. The research results indicated that participants were able to apply the knowledge and skills gained during the programme. However, four months after the completion of the programme none of them were involved in income-generation ventures. Despite the fact that the need for training existed in this rural area, sustainability was problematic once the facilitator withdrew. It is therefore recommended that novice entrepreneurs should have long-term guidance and emotional support in order to reach independence eventually.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die werkloosheid syfer in Suid-Afrika het die afgelope paar jaar onrusbarend toegeneem. 'n Groot aantal mense het geen vorm van inkomste nie, en baie maak staat op die inkomste wat hulle uit seisoenwerk genereer. Opleiding van volwassenes is aangedui as 'n wyse waarop mense 'n verskeidenheid vaardighede kan aanleer wat hulle dan kan toepas om sodoende vir hulself 'n inkomste te genereer. Hierdie navorsing is onderneem om te bepaal of 'n nieformele opleidingsprogram waar 'n deelnemende aksienavorsingsmetode (DAN) gevolg is, individue sal kan help om 'n inkomste te genereer. Die literatuuroorsig wat die navorsing onderskryf, sluit 'n bespreking in van armoede, landelike areas en die ontwikkeling daarvan asook van die relevansie van entrepreneuriese ontwikkeling in hierdie areas. Die fokus van die literatuur verskuif dan na volwasse onderwys, soos toegepas in opleidings programme. Daarna word deelnemende aksienavorsing (DAN) en die rol daarvan in programme in nieformele onderwys vir volwassenes bespreek. Dit word gevolg deur 'n bespreking van bemagtiging. Laastens word monitering en evaluering van programme bespreek. Die Development and Advancement of Rural Enterprises (DARE) Program is deur die Universiteit van Stellenbosch, Departement Verbruikerswetenskap: Voedsel, Kleding, Behuising in 2000 geloods. Die fokus van die program is om bystand aan landelike gemeenskappe ten opsigte van die hantering van werkloosheid en armoede aan te spreek. Die landelike dorp Montagu, is geïdentifiseer as 'n area om 'n nieformele onderwysprogram vir volwassenes wat fokus op vaardigheidsopleiding en entrepreneuriese ontwikkeling van belangstellende individue in die gemeenskap, aan te bied. Mense van die gemeenskap is uitgenooi om vrywillig aan die program deel te neem. Die navorsingsperiode het oor 14 maande gestrek. Die program self het bestaan uit verskillende projekte wat op opleidingsvaardighede geskik om 'n inkomste te genereer, fokus. 'n Deelnemende aksienavorsingsmetode is gevolg om opleidingsvaardighede aan te bied. Elke DAN-siklus het uit vier fases bestaan, naamlik beplanning, aksie, observasie en besinning. 'n Hersieningsplan het deel uitgemaak van die eerste fase van die volgende siklus. Hierdie benadering het maksimum betrokkenheid deur deelnemers verseker. Tydens een van die DAN siklusse, is deelnemers se bemagtingingsvlakke gemeet deur gebruik te maak van 'n gestandaardiseerde vraelys met 'n voor- en ná-toets ontwerp. Een van die DAN-siklusse het uit 'n vyf-dag sakekursus bestaan. Verskillende aspekte van entrepreneurskap is tydens die program aangespreek en ten slotte is alle vaardighede saamgevoeg en geïmplementeer om die generering van inkomste aan te moedig. Gevallestudies is gebruik om deelnemers se bemagtigingsvlakke, algemene inligting oor die deelnemers en die deelnemers se evaluering van die program aan te teken. Hierdie data is ook gebruik om die sukses van die program te evalueer. Die data analise wys uitdruklik dat daar 'n behoefte was aan die ontwikkeling van vaardighede en entrepreneuriese ontwikkeling in hierdie landelike gebied. Deelnemers was gretig om aan die program deel te neem en om vaardighede wat aangeleer is, toe te pas op die ope mark. Die deelnemers wat die program voltooi het, het almal 'n verbetering ten opsigte van hulle vlakke van bemagtiging getoon, met die grootste verbetering op die mikrovlak. Die navorsingsresultate bevestig dat die deelnemers hulle vaardighede en kennis wat in die program verwerf is, kon toepas. Nogtans was geeneen van die deelnemers wat die program voltooi het, vier maande ná die afloop van die program besig om 'n inkomste te genereer nie. AI was daar 'n behoefte aan opleiding in hierdie landelike area geidentifiseer, was daar, nadat die fasiliteerder onttrek het, geen volhoubaarheid van die program nie. Daar word dus aanbeveel dat opkomende entrepreneurs langtermynondersteuning sal geniet wat uiteindelik tot hul onafhanklikheid sal lei.

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