Eating patterns of Indian preschool children between 1-5 years of age in Howick West (Kwa-Zulu Natal)

Bux, Fathima (2003-12)

Thesis (Mnutr)--Stellenbosch University,2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Most of the risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, smoking, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), obesity, physical inactivity and heredity are common in South African populations, with Indians ranking among those with the highest prevalence in the country. Little published literature is available on eating patterns in pre-school children in the Indian population. Therefore, this study a ims to assess the nutritional status of a group of Indian pre-school children in Howick West (a small suburb in the Kwa-Zulu Natal Midlands). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 50 Indian pre-school children between the ages of 1-5 years, randomly selected from a total of 632 available Indian households in Howick West. Written, informed consent was obtained from the mother/caregiver of each child that participated in the study. Standardized and validated 24-hour-recall (24-H-R) and quantitative food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ), used in the National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) of 1999, were adapted and used to assess habitual intake and eating patterns of the 50 Indian pre-school children. Height and weight measurements using standardized methodology were used to assess the anthropometric status of the children. Results: The prevalence of underweight was 14%. Stunting affected only 8% of the children, and 2% were at risk of overweight. The mean energy intakes of the children were above that recommended for age. A high fat intake was observed, with total fat contributing 42% to the daily total energy (TE) intake. The contributions of total carbohydrate and protein to TE intake were 45% and 10%, respectively. Low mean intakes of the following micronutrients were observed (less than 67% of the RDA): Calcium (22% of the children), Vitamin D (90%), Zinc (56%) and Iodine (90%), respectively. Based on the 24-H-R, the intakes of the remaining micronutrients were either above or equivalent to that recommended for age when compared to the 1989 RDAs. Conclusions: Despite a relatively high prevalence of underweight compared to overweight in these preschoolers, dietary analysis has indicated adequate dietary intakes in terms of total energy recommended for the age groups studied. However, total fat intake which represented 42% of TE, was high, with saturated fat (SF) contributing 15% to TE intake. This finding is cause for concern as excessive consumption of dietary fat has been implicated in the aetiology of CVD, obesity and some forms of cancer, and CHD is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in South Africa, especially among the Indian segment of the population.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Meeste van die risikofaktore vir koronêre hartsiektes (KHS) soos hipertensie, dislipidemie, rook, nie-insulien afhanklike diabetes (NIADM), vetsug, fisiese onaktiwiteit en oorerflikheid, kom algemeen onder Suid-Afrikaanse bevolkingsgroepe voor, met Indiërs onder dié met die hoogste voorkoms in die land. Min gepubliseerde inligting is beskikbaar oor die eetgewoontes van voorskoolse kinders onder die Indiër bevolking. Die doel van hierdie studie was dus 0 m die voedingstatus van 'n groep Indiër voorskoolse kinders in Howick Wes ('n klein voorstad in die Kwa-Zulu Natal Middellande) te bepaal. Metodes: Dit was 'n dwarssnit studie van 50 voorskoolse Indiër kinders tussen die ouderdomme van 1-5 jaar, ewekansig geselekteer uit 632 beskikbare Indiër huishoudings in Howick Wes. Geskrewe en ingeligte toestemming is ontvang van die moeder/versorger van elke kind wat aan die studie deelgeneem het. Gestandaardiseerde en gevalideerde 24-uur herroep (24-H-R) en voedsel frekwensie vraelyste (QFFQ) soos gebruik in die Nasionale Voedsel Inname Studie (NFCS) van 1999, is aangepas en gebruik om gewoontelike inname en eetgewoontes van die 50 Indiër voorskoolse kinders te bepaal. Lengte en gewig is m.b.v. standaad tegnieke bepaal om die antropometriese status van die kinders te evalueer. Resultate: Die voorkoms van ondergewig was 14%. Dwerggroei het slegs 8% van die kinders geaffekteer en 2% het 'n risiko vir oorgewig getoon. Die gemiddelde energie inname van die kinders was hoër as wat aanbeveel word vir hierdie ouderdomsgroep. 'n Hoë vetinname is gevind, met 'n totale vet bydrae van 42% tot die daaglikse totale energie (TE) inname. Die bydrae van koolhidrate en proteïen tot TE was 45% en 10% respektiewelik. Lae gemiddelde innames van die volgende mikrovoedingstowwe is gevind (minder as 67% van die RDA): kalsium (22% van die kinders), vitamien D (90%), sink (56%) en jodium (90%), respektiewelik. Gebasseer op die 24-H-R, was die inname van die oorblywende mikrovoedingstowwe óf hoër óf gelyk aan wat aanbeveel word vir die betrokke ouderdomsgroep wanneer vergelyk word met die 1989 RDA. Gevolgtrekkings: Ten spyte van 'n relatiewe hoë voorkoms van ondergewig in vergelyking met oorgewig in hierdie voorskoolse kinders, was dieetinname voldoende in terme van totale aanbevole energie vir die ouderdomsgroep. Totale vetinname, wat 42% van TE uitgemaak het, was egter hoog en versadigde vette het 15% van TE bedra. Hierdie verskynsel is 'n rede tot kommer aangesien oormatige vetinname reeds geïmpliseer is in die etiologie van KHS, vetsug en sommige vorms van kanker, en KHS is een van die belangrikste oorsake van morbiditeit en mortaliteit in Suid Afrika, veralonder die Indiër bevolking.

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