Die voorbereiding van onderwysers vir uitkomsgebaseerde onderwys binne die leerarea sosiale wetenskappe

Rogers, Lambert (2003-04)

Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since 1994 South Africa has been characterized by transformation inter alia in the field of education. A process characterized by preparation and development of a new, extended curriculum evolved between 1994 and 1997. On 24 March 1997 Curriculum 2005 with an outcomes-based approach was introduced. Curriculum 2005 strives to bridge the imbalances of the past. Owing to the complexity of this curriculum and the problems encountered in practice, Curriculum 2005 was revised between January and July 2001 in order to address the problem areas. A change in curriculum necessitates a change in teaching-instruction strategies, learning programmes, assessment strategies and the method of recording and reporting. As educators are directly affected by the process of change in curricula, it is essential that educators are curriculum-competent to understand and implement the changes. In this regard, Evans (1996:55) states: "One of the necessary ingredients of such a restructuring is empowering the players, the teachers." An essential condition for successful implementation of change is the empowerment of educators to manage the change. The essential questions addressed in this study are: • To what degree are educators trained to manage these changes? • What does the successful implementation of change, entail specifically within the Social Sciences Learning Area? • What are the educators' needs and experience regarding change? The main focus of this study is to make a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the current changes with a view to developing a theoretical framework for the training of educators for Outcomes-based Education (OBE) within the Social Sciences Learning Area. To achieve the main focus of this study, the following specific aims have been formulated: • executing of a literature study, with regard to appropriate curriculum theory, curriculum practice and development of educators; • making a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the training process of educators within the Social Sciences Learning Area; and • developing a theoretical framework to address the problems that have been identified, regarding educator development. The contribution of this study is located not only in the appropriate literature study, but also in the fact that the outcome of this research can contribute to the development of a relevant, effective and contextualised dissemination process. It is clear that ineffective dissemination is the root cause of ineffective curriculum development, as educator development cannot be optimalised in such conditions.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika word sedert 1994 deur transformasie gekenmerk, onder meer op onderwysgebied. Tussen 1994 en 1997 is 'n proses aan die gang gesit om 'n nuwe, breë kurrikulum voor te berei en te ontwikkel. Op 24 Maart 1997 is Kurrikulum 2005 bekend gestel. Met Kurrikulum 2005 se uitkomsgebaseerde benadering word daarna gestreef om die ongelykhede van die verlede te oorbrug. As gevolg van die kompleksiteit van die kurrikulum en probleme wat in die praktyk ervaar is, is Kurrikulum 2005 tussen Januarie en Julie 2001 hersien ten einde probleemareas aan te spreek. Kurrikulumverandering beteken uiteraard dat daar ook In verandering in onderrigstrategieë, leerprogramme, assesseringstrategieë en wyses van optekening en rapportering sal wees. Aangesien opvoeders direk deur die veranderingsproses van kurrikula geraak word, is dit noodsaaklik dat opvoeders kurrikulumbekwaam is om die verandering te verstaan en te implementeer. In die lig hiervan verklaar Evans (1996: 5): "One of the neccesary ingredients of such a restructuring is empowering the players - the teachers." 'n Kernvoorwaarde vir suksesvolle implementering van verandering is die bemagtiging van opvoeders om hierdie verandering te hanteer. Die kernvrae wat in hierdie studie aangespreek word, is: • In watter mate word opvoeders voorberei om sodanige veranderinge te kan hanteer? • Wat behels effektiewe opvoedervoorbereiding met die oog op die suksesvolle implementering van verandering, spesifiek binne die leerarea Sosiale Wetenskappe? • Wat is opvoeders se behoeftes en ervaring van verandering? Die hooffokus van die studie is die maak van 'n kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe evaluering van huidige verandering met die oog op die ontwikkeling van 'n teoretiesee raamwerk vir die voorbereiding van opvoeders vir Uitkomsgebaseerde Onderwys (UGO) binne die Leerarea Sosiale Wetenskappe. Om die hooffokus van hierdie studie te realiseer, is die volgende besondere doelstellings geformuleer: • die uitvoer van 'n literatuurstudie ten opsigte van toepaslike kurrikulumteorie, kurrikulumpraktyke en opvoederontwikkeling. • die maak van 'n kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe evaluering van die voorbereidingsproses van opvoeders binne die Leerarea Sosiale Wetenskap; en • die ontwikkeling van 'n teoretiese kurrikulumraamwerk vir die aanspreek van die geïdentifiseerde probleme met betrekking tot opvoederontwikkeling. Die bydrae van hierdie studie is nie net in die toepaslike literatuurstudie geleë nie, maar ook daarin dat die uitkoms van hierdie navorsing kan bydra tot die ontwikkeling van relevante, doelmatige en gekontekstualiseerde disseminasieprosesse. Dit blyk duidelik dat oneffektiewe disseminasie 'n grondoorsaak van oneffektiewe opvoederontwikkeling is, juis omdat opvoederontwikkeling nie tot sy reg kom nie.

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