Die internasionale reaksie op die Israel-Arabiese oorlog van 1973

Botha, Marniel (2003-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: From the earliest years the Middle East was known for it's wars and conflict. Religious differences and both the Jews and Palestinian Arabs lay claim to certain territories and religious sites. The fact that the conflict is based on religion makes it an explosive situation and very difficult to find a solution. When the state Israel was established the conflict took on a particular form and the existence of the Palestinian Arabs was threatened. Israel and Egypt were faced opposite each other regularly on the battlefield. Only with the help of a superpower they were able to be in active conflict with each other. Since the Second World War there were an alliance between Israel and the US and Egypt decided to approach Russia for a partnership. Both Israel and Egypt realised that they could not face each other on the battlefield if they were not getting aid and help from a superpower. The influence of the superpowers in this conflict in the Middle East brought a new dimension to the whole situation. The relationship between the superpowers after World War II was in such a bad shape that it gave way to the rise of the Cold War. The bad relationship between the superpowers had a direct influence on the countries in the Middle East. Due to the fact that the allies of the superpowers in the Middle East was entangled in a conflict that increased the mistrust between the superpowers. The course of the October war of 1973 was completely different than the rest of the Middle East wars up until 1973. The superpowers was drawn into the war because of the pressure that was put on the superpowers during this war. That what was feared by everybody were coming true. The conflict in the Middle East was developing from a regional war to the threat of a pending global war. It was very clear that the superpowers could not control their clients of the Middle East to such an extent to avoid a direct confrontation between them. The global crisis did not last long and ended very shortly after it started. During the period after the October war an intense period of negotiations took place between the relevant countries. The friendship between Israel and America was reasonably stable in comparison to the unstable relationship between Egypt and Moscow. Egypt was approaching Washington now to establish a friendship with them. America was the driving force behind the negotiations in the Middle East and with that tried to bring an end to the influence of Russia in the region. They were very succesful in doing that and agreements were signed between Israel and Syria as well as Israel and Egypt. The conflict between Egypt and Israel ended with the signing of the peace agreement between them but the conflict between Israel and the Palestinian Arabs has not ended. The grievances between them are extremely complex and a solution for peace looks very unlikely.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Midde-Ooste was vanaf die vroegste tye 'n gebied wat gekenmerk is aan oorlog en konflik. Die konflik spruit uit godsdiensverskille en die aansprake wat beide die Jode en Palestynse Arabiere het op grondgebied en heilige plekke. Die feit dat die konflik op godsdiens geskoei is maak dat dit 'n plofbare situasie is en uiters moeilik om 'n oplossing te verkry. Die konflik het 'n kenmerkende vorm aangeneem toe die staat Israel gestig is en die bestaan van die Palestynse Arabiere in die gebied bedreig is. Israel en Egipte het menigmaal te staan gekom teenoor mekaar op die oorlogsveld. Beide kon dit net doen met die hulp van hul bondgenootskap met 'n supermoondheid. Israel en die VSA was bondgenote terwyl Egipte toenadering tot USSR gesoek het. Israel en Egipte het besef dat hul die hulp en ondersteuning van 'n supermoondheid nodig gehad het om suksesvol in hul stryd te wees teen die ander. Die invloed van die supermoondhede in die konflik in die Midde-Ooste het 'n nuwe dimensie gegee aan die stryd. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die verhouding tussen die supermoondhede sodanig verswak dat dit gelei het tot die ontstaan van die Koue Oorlog. Dié swak verhouding het 'n direkte invloed gehad in hul verhoudinge met die lande in die Midde-Ooste. Omdat hulle bondgenote ook in 'n stryd gewikkel was het dit verder bygedra tot die wantroue tussen die supermoondhede. Die Oktober-oorlog van 1973 het heeltemal anders as die ander oorloë verloop. Die druk wat die sitausie op die supermoondhede geplaas het, het daartoe gelei dat hulle direk in die konflik betrek is. Dit wat almal gevrees en oor gespekuleer het, het nou waar geword. Die konflik van die Midde-Ooste het nou ontwikkel van 'n streeksoorlog na 'n dreigende globale oorlog. Dit blyk baie duidelik dat beide supermoondhede nie genoegsame druk op hul bondgenote kon plaas om 'n direkte konfrontasie tussen hulle te vermy nie. So vinnig soos wat die globale krisis ontwikkel het so vinnig is dit beëindig. Die tydperk na die Oktober-oorlog was gekenmerk aan 'n intense periode van onderhandeling tussen die betrokke lande. Die verhouding tussen Israel en die VSA was baie stabiel teenoor die onstabiele verhouding tussen Egipte en die USSR. Egipte het al meer toenadering tot Washington gesoek. Amerika was die dryfveer agter die vredesonderhandelinge en het daarmee gepoog om die invloed van USSR in die Midde-Ooste tot 'n einde te bring. Hy was baie suksesvol daarmee en ten spyte van teenkanting is vredesooreenkomste gesluit tussen Israel en Egipte asook Israel en Sirië. Die konflik tussen Egipte en Israel is grootliks beëindig maar die konflik tussen Israel en die Palestynse Arabiere is nog in volle swang. Die twispunte tussen dié twee nasies is kompleks en "n vredesoplossing lyk hoogs onwaarskynlik.

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