Effect of shading and ethephon on the anthocyanin composition of ‘Crimson seedless’ (Vitis vinifera L.)

Human, Michael Adriaan (2010-12)

Thesis (MScAgric (Viticulture and Oenology)--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: ‘Crimson Seedless’ is currently one of the most important and popular table grape cultivars produced in South Africa, and as such it is of great economic value for table grape producers. Major concerns with ‘Crimson Seedless’ is that it is prone to inadequate colouring, and with increased yields the berry size decreases. An additional difficulty is that methods used to increase berry size, further impede berry colouring. A plant growth regulator (PGR) commonly used in table grape production, to enhance colour formation, is ethephon (2-chloro-ethyl-phosphonic acid, 2-CEPA). In recent years significant research has been done on the effect of sunlight on anthocyanin production in grapes, although this has primarily been on wine grape cultivars. Currently, there is limited knowledge on the effect of sunlight on table grapes, and how this might influence their anthocyanin composition and content. The effect of ethephon on colour of grapes and other fruit have been extensively researched and well documented. However, the effect of ethephon on the anthocyanin composition of ‘Crimson Seedless’ is not well known. The current study aimed to explore the effect of sunlight (by matter of exclusion) and management practices, namely defoliation and ethephon application, on the anthocyanin profile and content of ‘Crimson Seedless’. Four different treatments were applied to two ‘Crimson Seedless’ vineyards, the first site located in Paarl, and the second in De Doorns. The treatments were: 1. Naturally exposed bunches, 2. Exposed bunches treated with ethephon, 3. Bunches kept in shade boxes, 4. Shaded bunches treated with ethephon. At the De Doorns site an additional defoliation treatment was superimposed over the above treatments. An HPLC technique was modified for the separation and detailed profiling of ‘Crimson Seedless’ anthocyanins and was used to analyse the effect of the reported treatments on the anthocyanin profile of berry skins. The predominant anthocyanin in ‘Crimson Seedless’ is peonidin-3-glucoside (Pn-gluc), and this was found to be significantly increased only by ethephon application, and was not altered by sunlight or leaf removal. The responses of the other anthocyanin types varied according to the respective treatments applied. However, a general observation was that ethephon application more consistently increased the concentration of anthocyanins in berry skins than did sunlight. Leaf removal had the least significant effect on anthocyanin concentration.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMIMG: ‘Crimson Seedless’ is tans een van die belangrikste en gewildste tafeldruif cultivars wat in Suid-Afrika verbou word en daarom is dit van groot ekonomiese waarde vir tafeldruifprodusente. ‘Crimson Seedless’ is egter daarvoor bekend dat dit te swak kleur (volgens uitvoer spesifikasies) en tweedens is die cultivar geneig om kleiner korrels te ontwikkel wanneer die oeslading vermeerder word. ‘n Addisionele probleem is dat die praktyke wat in die industrie gebruik word om korrels te vergroot ‘n verdere negatiewe impak op ‘Crimson Seedless’ se kleur ontwikkeling kan veroorsaak. Die plant-groei-reguleerder wat algemeen in tafeldruif verbouing gebruik word, ten einde beter gekleurde druiwe te produseer, is ethephon (2-chloro-ethyl-phosphonic acid, 2-CEPA). In die laaste paar jaar was daar baie navorsing gedoen oor die effek wat sonlig het op die antosianien produksie van druiwe, maar navorsing was gefokus op wyndruif cultivars. Huidiglik is daar beperkte tegniese kennis oor die effek wat sonlig op tafeldruiwe het, en hoe dit moontlik die antosianien samestelling en inhoud kan beïnvloed. Daar is ook reeds verskeie studies gedoen en data gepubliseer oor die invloed wat ethephon op die kleur het van druiwe en ander vrugte, maar die invloed wat ethephon op die antosianien samestelling van ‘Crimson Seedless’ het, is nie wel bekend nie. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die effek van sonlig (deur uitsluiting) en bestuurspraktyke (blaarverwydering en ethephon toediening) te bestudeer en hoe dit die antosianien samestelling van ‘Crimson Seedless’ beïnvloed. Vier verskillende behandelings is toegedien in twee ‘Crimson Seedless’ wingerde, die eerste proefperseel in die Paarl en die tweede proefperseel in De Doorns. Die behandelings was: 1. Natuurlik blootgestelde trosse, 2. blootgestelde trosse met ethephon, 3. Trosse met skadubokse omhul, 4. Skaduboks trosse met ethephon. By De Doorns is ‘n addisionele blaarverwydering proef bygebring. ‘n HPLC tegniek was aangepas om die antosianien samestelling en inhoud van ‘Crimson Seedless’ te bepaal, en om die effek van die behandelings te ondersoek. Die HPLC data het getoon dat peonodien-3-glukosied (Pn-gluc) die primêre antosianien in ‘Crimson Seedless’ is met die hoogste inhoud van al die antosianiene. Pn-gluc was betekenisvol beïnvloed deur ethephon toediening, terwyl die ander behandelings geen betekenisvolle effekte daarop gehad het nie. Die effekte wat die ander antosianiene gehad het, het gevarieer volgens die behandelings wat toegedien was. ‘n Algemene observasie was dat ethephon toediening die antosianien konsentrasie in ‘Crimson Seedless’ druiwe skille meer konsekwent vermeerder het as die sonlig blootstelling. Die blaarverwydering het die minste betekenisvolle effek op die antosianien inhoud van ‘Crimson Seedless’ gehad.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/5337
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