Development of synthetic signal sequences for heterologous protein secretion from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Kriel, Johan Hendrik (2003-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Protein secretion and intracellular transport are highly regulated processes and involve the interplay of a multitude of proteins. A unique collection of thermosensitive secretory mutants allowed scientists to demonstrate that the secretory pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is very similar to that of the higher eukaryotes. All proteins commence their journey in the endoplasmic reticulum, where they undergo amino-linked core glycosyl modification. After passage through the Golgi apparatus, where the remodelling of the glycosyl chains is completed, proteins are transported to their final destinations, which are either the cell surface, periplasmic space or the vacuole. Proteins destined for secretion are usually synthesised with a transient amino-terminal secretion leader of varying length and hydrophobicity, which plays a crucial role in the targeting and translocation of their protein cargo. Considerable effort has been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes, especially due to their relevance in a rapidly expanding biotech industry. The advantages of S. cerevisiae as a host for the expression of recombinant proteins are well documented. Unfortunately, S. cerevisiae is also subject to a number of drawbacks, with a relative low product yield being one of the major disadvantages. Bearing this in mind, different secretion leaders were compared with the aim of improving the secretion of the LKA 1 and LKA2 a-amylase enzymes from the S. cerevisiae secretion system. The yeast Lipomyces kononenkoae is well known for its ability to degrade raw starch and an improved secretion of its amylase enzymes from S. cerevisiae paves the way for a potential one-step starch utilisation process. Three sets of constructs were prepared containing the LKA 1 and LKA2 genes separately under secretory direction of either their native secretion leader, the S. cerevisiae mating pheromone a-factor (MFa1) secretion leader, or the MFa1 secretion leader containing a synthetic C-terminal spacer peptide (EEGEPK). The inclusion of a spacer peptide in the latter set of constructs ensured improved Kex2p proteolytic processing of the leader/protein fusion. Strains expressing the amylase genes under their native secretion leaders resulted in the highest saccharolytic activity in the culture medium. In contrast to this, strains utilising the synthetic secretion leader produced the highest fermentation yield, but had a lower than expected extracellular activity. We hypothesise that the native amylase leaders may function as intramolecular chaperones in the folding and processing of their passenger proteins, thereby increasing processing efficiency and concomitant enzyme activity.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Proteïensekresie en intrasellulêre transport is hoogs gereguleerde prosesse en betrek die onderlinge wisselwerking van 'n verskeidenheid proteïene. 'n Unieke versameling van temperatuur-sensitiewe sekresiemutante het wetenskaplikes in staat gestelom die ooreenkoms tussen die sekresiepad van die gis Saccharomyces cerevisiae en dié van komplekser eukariote aan te toon. Alle proteïene begin hul reis in die endoplasmiese retikulum, waartydens hulle ook amino-gekoppelde kernglikosielveranderings ondergaan. Nadat die proteïene deur die Golgi-apparaat beweeg het, waar die laaste veranderings aan die glikosielkettings plaasvind, word hulle na hul finale bestemmings, waaronder die seloppervlak, die periplasmiese ruimte of die vakuool, vervoer. Proteïene wat vir sekresie bestem is, word gewoonlik met 'n tydelike, amino-eindpuntsekresiesein, wat 'n kritiese rol in die teiken en translokasie van hul proteïenvrag speel, gesintetiseer. Heelwat pogings is in hierdie studie aangewend om die molekulêre meganismes betrokke by hierdie prosesse te ontrafel, veral as gevolg van hul toepaslikheid in 'n vinnig groeiende biotegnologiebedryf. Die voordele van S. cerevisiae as 'n gasheer vir die uitdruk van rekombinante proteïene is alombekend. S. cerevisiae het egter ook verskeie nadele, waaronder die relatiewe lae produkopbrengs die belangrikste is. Teen hierdie agtergrond, is verskillende sekresieseine met mekaar vergelyk met die doelom die sekresie van die LKA 1 en LKA2 a-amilasegene vanuit die S. cerevisiae-uitdrukkingsisteem te verbeter. Die gis Lipomyces kononenkoae is bekend vir sy vermoeë om rou stysel af te breek en 'n verbeterde sekresie van sy amilasegene vanuit S. cerevisiae baan die weg vir 'n moontlike een-stap styselgebruiksproses. Drie stelle konstrukte is gemaak wat die LKA 1- en LKA2- gene onafhanklik onder sekresiebeheer van onderskeidelik hul inheemse sekresiesein, die S. cerevisiae paringsferomoonsekresiesein (MFa1) of die MFa1-sekresiesein met 'n sintetiese koppelingspeptied aan die C-eindpunt (EEGEPK), plaas. Die insluiting van 'n koppelingspeptied in die laasgenoemde stel konstrukte verseker verbeterde Kex2p proteolitiese prosessering van die sein/proteïenfusie. Rasse wat die amilasegene onder beheer van hul inheemse sekresieseine uitdruk, het die beste saccharolitiese aktiwiteit in die kultuurmedia getoon. In teenstelling hiermee, het rasse wat van die sintetiese sekresiesein gebruik maak, die beste fermentasie-opbrengs getoon, maar met 'n laer as verwagte ekstrasellulêre aktiwiteit. Ons vermoed dat die inheemse amilaseseine as intramolekulêre begeleiers optree in die vou en prosessering van hul proteïenpassasiers, wat lei tot verbeterde prosessering en ensiemaktiwiteit.

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