A pathogen-derived resistance strategy for the broad-spectrum control of grapevine leafroll-associated virus infection

Freeborough, Michael-John, 1971- (2003-12)

Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 is one of ten members of the C/osteroviridae that are known to infect grapevine. Nine of these viruses are associated with grapevine leafroll disease, of which GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 are the most important and widespread. Members of the C/osteroviridae are unique amongst the viruses, as it is the only known family whose members encode a heat shock protein 70 kOa homolog (Hsp70h). The Hsp70h is a movement protein (MP) that is required for the active translocation of the virion structure through the plasmodesmata into adjacent cells. Broad-spectrum resistance to unrelated viruses can be obtained by a pathogen-derived resistance (POR) strategy that is based on the expression of a dysfunctional MP in plants. The Hsp70h has two distinct domains. The N-terminal two thirds of the protein is an ATPase domain and shares high homology with the ATPase domains of all Hsp70h proteins from the C/osteroviridae and Hsp70 proteins from the prokaryote and eukaryote kingdoms. Conserved amino acids are found in the ATPase domain and are required for the positioning of the ATP at the catalytic site for ATP hydrolysis. The C-terminal domain is variable and the function of this domain in the Closteroviridae is not known. In prokaryote and eukaryote Hsp70 proteins, the C-terminal domain is required for protein-protein interactions. The American NY-1 isolate of GLRaV-3 has been sequenced and POR strategies have been attempted with the coat protein, divergent coat protein and replicase genes, but not with a dysfunctional form of the hsp70h gene. In this study, double-stranded RNA was isolated from a commercial vineyard with unknown virus status, but with distinct grapevine leafroll symptoms, and from two grapevine sources of known virus status, one with mild and one with severe symptoms. The GLRaV-3 hsp70h gene was amplified by RT-PCR from the dsRNA and the gene sequence was analysed. The hsp70h gene from the three virus sources contained more than 94% nucleotide sequence homology to the NY-1 isolate and the conserved amino acids required for ATPase activity were present. The hsp70h gene isolated from GLRaV-3 from a commercial Stellenbosch vineyard showing clear leafroll symptoms was selected for further work and was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis to engineer four point mutations in the gene. These four mutations resulted in the substitution of Asn for Asp", Gly for Thr1O, Lys for Glu 174 and Asn for Asp 197. The wild type (WT) and mutated (Mut) forms of the hsp 70h genes were cloned into a bacterial expression vector. Expression of both the WT- and Mut-Hsp proteins was achieved, and the protein was expressed in the insoluble inclusion bodies. All attempts to refold and isolate active proteins from the inclusion bodies were unsuccessful. Attempts to increase the concentration of soluble protein within the expressing bacteria were unsuccessful. Due to the lack of active protein, biochemical tests on the ATPase activity of the WT- and Mut-Hsp proteins could not be conducted. The wt- and mut-hsp genes were cloned into a plant expression vector for transformation into tobacco plants. These transformations were successful and gave rise to 22 Km' and 18 Km' plants from the WT- and Mut-Hsp constructs respectively. Two plant lines, M5 and M10, transformed with the mut-hsp transgene construct, appeared to have a high level of resistance to the challenging potato X potexvirus, whereas all the other tested plants were susceptible to the challenging virus. It was thus shown that a dysfunctional form of the GLRaV-3 Hsp70h could provide resistance to an unrelated virus in tobacco.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wingerdrolblaar-geassosieerde virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is een van 10 lede van die Closteroviridae wat wingerd kan infekteer. Nege van die virusse is met wingerdrolblaar geassosieer. Die GLRaV-1 en GLRaV-3 is die belangrikste en mees wyd verspreide lede van die rolblaar-geassosieerde Closteroviridae. Lede van die Closteroviridae is uniek in die opsig dat die virusse vir 'n 70 kDa-homoloë hitteresponsproteïen (Hsp70h) kodeer. Die Hsp70 is 'n bewegingsproteïen (MP) wat belangrik is vir die translokasie van die virus deur die plasmodesmata na die naasliggende sel. Breë-spektrum weerstand teen onverwante virusse kan behaal word deur 'n patogeen-afgeleide weerstandstrategie (POR), wat op die uitdrukking van 'n disfunksionele MP wat in plante uitgedruk word, gebaseer is. Die Hsp70hproteïen het twee gebiede. Die N-terminale gebied is In ATPase-gebied en toon hoë homologie met ander ATPase-gebiede van Hsp70h-proteïene van die Closteroviridae, asook die prokariotiese en eukariotiese koninkryke. Gekonserveerde aminosure wat belangrik is vir die posisionering van ATP in die katalitiese domein vir ATP-hidrolise is in die ATPase-gebied gevind. Die C-terminale gebied is variërend en die funksie van die gebied in die Closteroviridae is onbekend. In prokariotiese en eukariotiese Hsp70h-proteïene is die C-terminale gebied belangrik vir proteïenproteïen interaksies. Die nukleotiedvolgorde van die Amerikaanse NY-1-isolaat van GLRaV-3 is al bepaal en POR-strategieë is ook op die kapsiedproteïen, uiteenlopende kapsiedproteïen en die replikasie-proteïen uitgevoer, maar nog nie op 'n disfunksionele vorm van die Hsp70h-geen nie. In hierdie studie is dubbelstring-RNA (dsRNA) van 'n kommersiële wingerd met onbekende virusstatus wat rolblaarsimptome toon, geïsoleer, asook van twee wingerde met 'n bekende virusstatus, een met ligte en een met strawwe simptome. Die GLRaV-3 hsp70h-geen is met hulp van die polimerasekettingreaksie-metode (PKR) vanaf die dsRNA geamplifiseer en die geen se nukleotiedvolgorde is bepaal. Die hsp 70-gene van drie verskillende wingerde het meer as 94% homologie met die NY-1-isolaat getoon. Die gekonserveerde aminosure wat vir ATPase-aktiwiteit belangrik is, was teenwoordig. Die hsp70h-geen van GLRaV-3, wat uit 'n kommersiële wingerd met duidelike rolblaarsimptome in die Stellenbosch-gebied geïsoleer is, is vir verdere navorsing gekies en dit is aan setel-gerigte mutagenese blootgestelom vier mutasies van die geen te bewerkstellig. Die gevolg van hierdie vier mutasies was die verandering van Asn na Asp", Gly na Thr1o, Lys na Glu174 en Asn na Asp197. Die wilde (WT) en veranderde (Mut) vorms van die hsp-gene is in 'n bakteriese uitdrukkingsvektor gekloneer. Uitdrukking van beide die WT- en die Mut-Hspproteïene is behaal, maar die proteïene was in die onoplosbare fraksie geleë. Pogings om die onoplosbare proteïene te isoleer en in 'n aktiewe oplosbare vorm te verkry, was onsuksesvol. Verdere pogings om die proteïene in die oplosbare fraksie van die bakteriese ekspressiesisteem uit te druk, was ook onsuksesvol. As gevolg van die gebrek aan aktiewe proteïen kon biochemiese toetse nie op die ATPaseaktiwiteit van die WT- en Mut-Hsp proteïne gedoen word nie. Die wt- en mut-hsp-gene is ook in In plantekspressievektor gekloneer vir transformasie in tabakplante. Hierdie transformasies was suksesvol en het aanleiding gegee tot 22 kanamisienbestande (Km') en 18 Km' plante vanaf die WT- en Mut-Hspkonstrukte onderskeidelik. Twee plantlyne, M5 en M10, wat met die mut-hsptransgene getransformeer is, het 'n hoë vlak van weerstand teen die infekterende aartappelvirus X getoon in vergelyking met ander plante wat met die virus geïnfekteer is. Daar is dus bewys gelewer dat 'n disfunksionele vorm van die GLRaV-3 Hsp70h weerstand kan bied teen 'n onverwante virus in tabak.

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