The implementation and evaluation of a best practice physiotherapy protocol in a surgical ICU

Hanekom, Susan (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010)

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Thesis (PhD ( Interdisciplinary Health))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

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Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction: It is increasingly being recognized that how intensive care services are delivered may have a greater impact on patient outcome than the individual therapies. Uncertainty regarding the optimal physiotherapy service provision model in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) exists. Methodology: The aims of this study were to 1) develop an evidence-based physiotherapy protocol; 2) validate the content of the protocol; and 3) conduct an explorative intervention trial to compare usual care to the estimated effects of providing a physiotherapy service guided by an evidence-based physiotherapy protocol by a dedicated physiotherapist. A systematic review process was used to synthesize the evidence in eight subject areas. The GRADE system was used to formulate best practice recommendations and algorithm statements. Forty-two experts from a variety of disciplines were invited to participate in a Delphi process. Finally, the evidence-based physiotherapy protocol was implemented in a surgical ICU over four three-week intervention periods by a group of research therapists. The outcomes measured included ventilator time, ventilation proportions, failed extubation proportions, length of ICU and hospital stay, mortality, functional capacity, functional ability and cost (using nursing workload as proxy). Results: Fifty-three research reports in eight subject areas were identified, 23 draft best-practice recommendations and 198 algorithm statements were formulated. The draft protocol consisted of five clinical management algorithms. Fifteen international research experts and twelve national academics in the field of critical care agreed to participate in the Delphi process. Consensus was reached on the formulation of 87% (20/23) recommendations and the rating of 66% (130/198) statements. The risk of an adverse event during the protocol care intervention period was 6:1000 treatment sessions (p=0.34). Patients admitted to the unit during the protocol care intervention period were less likely to be intubated (RR 0.16 95%CI 0.07 – 0.71; RRR 0.84 NNT 5.02; p=0.005) or fail extubation (RR 0.23 95%CI 0.05 – 0.98; RRR =0.77 NNT 6.95; p=0.04). The mean difference in the daily unit TISS-28 score between the two condition periods was 1.99 95%CI 0.65 – 3.35 (p=0.04). Patients managed by the protocol tended to remain in the hospital for a shorter time after unit discharge (p=0.05). There was no difference in the time spent on the ventilator (p=0.50), mortality (p=0.52) or in the six minute walk distance (p=0.65). In addition there was no difference in the proportion of patients who reached independence in any of the Barthel Index activities measured within 48 hours of discharge from the unit. Conclusions: The use of an evidence-based physiotherapy protocol for the comprehensive physiotherapeutic management of patients in a surgical ICU was feasible and safe. The preliminary results of this study suggest that a physiotherapy service, which is guided by an evidence-based protocol and offered by a dedicated unit therapist, has the potential to lower the cost of ICU care and facilitate the functional recovery of patients after unit discharge. This information can now be considered by administrators to optimize the physiotherapy service provided in ICU.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding: Daar word toenemend erken dat die wyse waarop dienste gelewer word, ‘n groter impak mag hê op die uitkoms van pasiënte as die spesifieke modaliteite in gebruik. Onsekerheid heers tans oor die optimale fisioterapie diens model om te volg in ‘n chirurgiese intensiewe sorg eenheid (ISE). Metodologie: The doel van hierdie projek was om 1) ‘n bewysgesteunde protokol te ontwikkel; 2) die geldigheid van die protokol te bevestig; en 3) om deur middel van ‘n eksploratiewe studie die uitkoms van pasiënte te vergelyk wanneer die fisioterapie diens gelewer word aan die hand van die bewysgesteunde protokol deur ‘n toegewyde fisioterapeut, teenoor wanneer die gewone fisioterapie diens gelewer word. Die empiriese bewyse in agt onderwerp areas is gesintetiseer na afloop van ‘n sistematiese literatuur oorsig proses. Die GRADE sisteem is gebruik om beste praktyk aanbevelings en algoritme stellings te formuleer. Twee en veertig kundige persone van verskeie disiplines is genooi om deel te neem aan die Delphi proses om die geldigheid van die protokol te bevestig. Uiteindelik is die geldige bewysgesteunde protokol oor ‘n tydperk van vier drie weke intervensie periodes deur ‘n groep navorsings terapeute in ‘n chirurgiese ISE geïmplementeer. Die tyd wat pasiënte geventileer is, die proporsie pasiënte wat geïntubeer en geherintubeer is in die tydperk, die lengte van ISE en hospitaal verblyf, mortaliteit, funksionele kapasiteit asook funksionele vaardigheid en koste (deur die verpleeg werkslading te gebruik as ‘n indikasie van koste) is gemeet. Resultate: Drie en vyftig navorsings verslae in agt onderwerp areas is geïdentifiseer, 23 konsep aanbevelings en 198 algoritme stellings is geformuleer. Die konsep protokol het uit vyf algoritmes bestaan. Vyftien internasionale en twaalf nasionale kundiges het die uitnodiging aanvaar om aan die delphi proses deel te neem. Konsensus is bereik vir die formulering van 87% (20/23) van die aanbevelings en die gradering van 66% (130/198) van die algoritme stellings. Die risiko vir ‘n ongunstige episode tydens die protokol intervensie periode was 6:1000 sessies (p=0.34). Pasiënte wat tydens die protokol intervensie periode tot die eenheid toegelaat is was minder geneig om geïntubeer te word (RR 0.16 95%CI 0.07 – 0.71; RRR 0.84 NNT 5.02; p=0.005) of om ‘n ekstubasie te faal (RR 0.23 95%CI 0.05 – 0.98; RRR =0.77 NNT 6.95; p=0.04). Die gemiddelde verskil in die daaglikse eenheid TISS-28 telling tussen die twee intervensie periodes was 1.99 95%CI 0.65 – 3.35 (p=0.04). Patiente wat tydens die protokol intervensie periode behandel is was geneig om vinniger uit die hospitaal ontslaan te word nadat hul uit die eenheid ontslaan is (p=0.05). Daar was geen verskil in die ventilasie tyd, (p=0.50) die mortaliteit (p=0.52) of die afstand wat pasiente in ses minute kon aflê binne 48 uur na ontslag uit die eenheid (p=0.65) nie. Daar was ook geen verskil in die proporsie pasiente wat onafhanklikheid bereik het in enige van die kategorieë van die Barthell Index instrument nie. Gevolgtrekking: Die gebruik van die protokol vir die omvattende hantering van pasiënte in ‘n chirurgiese eenheid is haalbaar en veilig. Die voorlopige resultate van hierdie studie dui daarop dat wanneer ‘n fisioterapie diens in ‘n chirurgiese ISE gelewer word aan die hand van ‘n bewysgesteunde protokol deur ‘n toegewyde fisioterapeut dit die potensiaal het om ISE koste te verminder en die funksionele herstel van pasiente na ontslag uit die eenheid te fasiliteer. Hierdie inligting kan nou deur administrateurs oorweeg word om ‘n optimale fisioterapie diens in ‘n chirurgiese ISE te verseker.

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